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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary June 2004
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]


                                JUNE, 2004

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                             JUNE HIGHLIGHTS

  --> Western Pacific extremely active with five typhoons--tropics quiet


                 ***** Feature of the Month for June *****

                       "MOZ-MIDGETS" AND "MED-CANES"

     During the summer (boreal) of 2003, I sent another one of my famous
  surveys to the members of an informal tropical cyclone discussion group
  of which I am a member.   I also recently sent it to a few other persons
  in the tropical cyclone community.   I intend to present the results of
  the survey as monthly features spread over several months, beginning with
  the May, 2004, summary.   The survey consisted of ten multiple-choice
  questions dealing with various tropical or subtropical cyclone-related
  issues, and two or three questions will be considered each month.

     The persons responding to the survey are listed below.  A special
  thanks to each for taking the time to respond to the questions.

  Michael Bath - New South Wales, Australia
  Bruno Benjamin - Guadeloupe, French West Indies
  Eric Blake - TPC/NHC, Miami, Florida, USA
  Pete Bowyer - Canadian Hurricane Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  Kevin Boyle - Newchapel Observatory, Stoke-on-Trent, UK
  Jeff Callaghan - BoM, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  Simon Clarke - Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  Tony Cristaldi - NWS Office, Melbourne, Florida, USA
  Roger Edson - University of Guam, USA
  Chris Fogarty - Canadian Hurricane Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  James Franklin - TPC/NHC, Miami, Florida, USA
  Bruce Harper - Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  Julian Heming - UK Meteorological Office, UK
  Rich Henning - Eglin AFB, Florida, USA/Also 53rd Weather Recon. Squadron
  Karl Hoarau - Cergy-Pontoise University, Paris, France
  Greg Holland - BoM, Australia
  Mark Kersemakers - BoM, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
  Mark Lander - University of Guam, USA
  Chris Landsea - AOML/HRD, Miami, Florida, USA
  Gary Padgett - Alabama, USA
  Michael Pitt - US Navy
  David Roberts - TPC/NHC, Miami, Florida, USA
  David Roth - NOAA/HPC, Maryland, USA
  Matthew Saxby - Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia
  Carl Smith - Queensland, Australia
  Phil Smith - Hong Kong, China
  John Wallace - San Antonio, Texas, USA
  Ray Zehr - Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, USA

     For each of the survey questions, the format will be as follows:

     (1) the question as it appeared in the original survey

     (2) summary of the responses to each of the possible choices

     (3) some of the comments from various respondents

  Following this I will attempt to present an analysis of the issues
  plus interject my opinions on the subject.

     The monthly feature for June focuses on two questions concerning
  (usually) small, warm-core cyclones which are often seen over the
  Mozambique Channel and cooler waters of the eastern subtropical Atlantic,
  and on rare occasions in the Mediterranean Sea.  And although the survey 
  preceded the occurrence of the recent Brazilian cyclone (Catarina), this 
  system exhibited similar characteristics to the Mediterranean Sea and 
  Mozambique Channel cyclones.

     The two questions were related, but I distinguished between the
  systems of the Mozambique Channel and eastern subtropical Atlantic
  from those of the Mediterranean Sea because the former occur in
  recognized tropical cyclone basins and have often been classified
  operationally as tropical or subtropical cyclones, whereas this is not
  true for the Mediterranean cyclones.

     There were 28 persons who responded to the survey questions.  For
  some questions, certain persons did not specify an answer, so the total
  number of votes might not always add up to 28.  Also, in some cases the
  respondent was undecided between two of the choices.  In those cases I
  assigned 1/2 vote to each of the two choices.  A word about the comments
  included below:  this article is extremely long as it is, and I could
  not possibly include all the comments which the various respondents
  made.  I have selected certain ones which seem to cover the various 
  issues well, as well as a few which cast a different slant on the 

          Question #4 - Mozambique Channel and Atlantic Systems

  (1) The question was:  Occasionally, especially in the Mozambique
      Channel and the eastern subtropical Atlantic, small cyclones are
      seen which are completely non-frontal, with well-organized central
      convection, and often an eye, and these systems can be quite
      intense.  Yet, the central convection is rather shallow and warm
      compared with classic tropical cyclones.  Should these systems
      be classified as tropical or subtropical storms?

      (A) Tropical
      (B) Subtropical

  (2) Summary of Responses

      (A) Tropical:     12.5 votes  -  50%
      (B) Subtropical:  12.5 votes  -  50%

  (3) Some Comments

      Chris Fogarty (B):  "Sounds like a polar-LOW type system with the
      convection being shallow.  There's likely no well-formed anti-
      cyclone aloft, so I think something like this still belongs in the
      STS category."

      Chris Landsea (A):  "I think these are true tropical cyclones."

      Dave Roberts (no choice):  "If the forecaster is confident on actual
      core structure, then a choice should be made.  If not, classification
      could be made based on genesis region.  Either way, an advisory/
      warning should be written on the system."

      David Roth (B):  "They form under cold H5 cyclones, usually during
      the cold season, thus they fit the old definition (still found in
      Webster's) of a neutercane, or in the Hebert/Poteat paper, a ST
      cyclone Type B, beta."

      Eric Blake (B):  "Subtropical as they are typically not deep warm

      John Wallace (B):  "ST, this seems to be a path of least regret,
      and one that does not compromise the definition of 'tropicality'."

      Julian Heming (A):  "If you tried to educate on the difference
      between STs and TCs (i.e., large gale radius, lack of deep central
      convection for ST), but then contravene this by defining this type
      of storm as ST, it will just cause further confusion.  However, I
      would be wary of defining such systems as purely tropical when they
      form in areas where the formation mechanisms are very different to
      conventional tropical storms (e.g., the ones near the Canaries/
      Morocco).  I don't see why systems such as this in the Mozambique
      Channel should not be called 'tropical', though."

      Karl Hoarau (A):  "TC, especially if the AMSU data from satellites
      shows a warm core and if the QuikScat data indicates that the
      strongest winds are near the center of the cyclone."

      Mark Kersemakers (A):  "TC, as long as it's producing gales at the
      surface.  There's nothing in the TC definition that talks about
      the depth of convection."

      Mark Lander (A):  "As you know, I am a big advocate for classifying
      cyclones as tropical if they exhibit the classic features of an
      eye, convective ring (or eyewall), and--as you point out--a factor
      of isolation.  The handful of cases of Med-canes falls into this
      bin.  As part of classes in Dvorak analysis, I often sneak in a
      few pics of these small cyclones (side-by-side with pics of regular
      TCs), and no one ever recognizes the trick.  I have seen enough of
      the Moz. Channel systems and others in the subtropics of the Pacific
      and North Atlantic that to me, they are unquestionably tropical in
      character, and little different from height-of-the-season real TCs.
      So many times, the odd ship or island that gets in one of these
      shows that the winds are there.  On another topic, there is often
      a jaded view of "deep convection", especially here in the western
      North Pacific, where the eyewall tops and tops of MCSs are often
      in the -75 to -80 C range (or colder!).  People see convection in
      a higher latitude cyclone that is say in the -40's C or so, and
      claim that the convection if not "deep".  I like to point out that
      at -40 C the cloud tops are still near 35,000 ft!  This would make
      for a decent thunderstorm in the mainland."

      Matthew Saxby (A):  "If it looks, walks, and quacks like a duck....
      besides, I doubt fussy points about depth of convection would matter
      much to any victim."

      Pete Bowyer (no choice):  "Maybe there should simply be a spectrum
      going from A to Z, with A being purely tropical, and Z being purely
      extratropical...then the storm could be classified according to its
      location along the spectrum.  Or better still, maybe an extended
      version of Bob Hart's phase space diagram could include these types
      of storms...and Mark Lander's midgets, etc."

      Phil Smith (A):  "TC - the 'duck' argument applies."

      Tony Cristaldi (A):  "From what I have seen, "Moz" midgets and "Kona
      LOWs" fit more of the classic definition of a warm-core tropical

      Ray Zehr (B):  "ST, unless they're over 26-plus C water--then they're
      midget TCs."

      Rich Henning (B):  "If it is not over 80 F degree water...these
      systems usually rely on a sharp lapse rate (cold air aloft over luke-
      warm water to obtain similar thermodynamic potential through the
      temperature gradient between the ocean surface and tropopause).  The
      purely tropical system now east of the Lesser Antilles (this was
      written 4 August 2003) is using a SST of approximately 84 F (29 C)
      and a tropopause height of ~130 mb where the temperature is approx-
      imately -70 C.  The storms you are describing use SSTs often down
      around 72 F (22 C) with tropopause heights only around 300 mb (so
      the convection is capped out at only 30,000 feet or so).  The 500-mb
      temperature in these systems is MUCH lower than what we see in the
      tropics in August."

                   Question #5 - Mediterranean Cyclones

  (1) The question was:  Rarely, systems very similar if not identical to
      those described in Question #4 above are seen in the Mediterranean
      Sea, often over considerably colder SSTs.  Should the "Med-canes"
      be classed as:

      (A) Tropical
      (B) Subtropical
      (C) Some perhaps tropical, some subtropical
      (D) Non-tropical
      (E) Other (elaborate)

  (2) Summary of Responses

      (A) Tropical:               2.0 votes  -   8%
      (B) Subtropical:            9.5 votes  -  40%
      (C) Some TCs, others STCs:  5.0 votes  -  21%
      (D) Non-tropical:           5.5 votes  -  23%
      (E) Other:                  2.0 votes  -   8%

  (3) Some Comments

      Chris Fogarty (B):  "Here I am thinking "hybrid", which is
      essentially a synonym for "subtropical cyclone" - agree?  Hybrids
      have both tropical and extratropical characteristics."

      Chris Landsea (A):  "I do think such systems are more similar to
      TCs than any other type of storm system.  If these are produced by
      sensible & latent fluxes from the ocean (or Med. Sea in this case),
      then it should be the same dynamics, even if the SSTs are 15 C."

      Dave Roberts (D):  " I think it is very possible to find an energy
      source during its developing stage that is dynamic/baroclinic in

      David Roth (C):  "Some perhaps tropical, some subtropical.  If the
      convection is significantly deep (with tops colder than -40 C),
      there is little reason not to use the TC definition.  Otherwise,
      they fit the neutercane, ST cyclone Type B, beta, definition
      nearly perfectly."

      John Wallace (B & D):  "These systems do seem to derive much of
      their energy from warm-core processes, but on the whole they seem
      too different to consider "true" ST systems; they resemble strong
      "polar LOWs" more than STCs."

      Julian Heming (D):  "Since the classical definition of areas of TC
      formation includes a prerequisite for warm SSTs, I don't think you
      can define such systems as tropical.  However, whilst the distinction
      is fairly clear for Med-canes, it may be a bit more blurred for areas
      nearer to TC development belts."

      Karl Hoarau (D):  "Non-tropical--they often form in winter."

      Mark Lander (A):  "Well-developed Med-canes are certainly TCs by
      nearly all criteria one could apply to them.  Even the objection
      recently raised that there has never been a record of sustained
      hurricane-force winds in them was silenced by Jack Beven's Med-cane
      in which I think a ship recorded an 82-kt sustained wind.  If only
      to avoid the strangeness of saying that there is a hurricane in the
      Mediterranean in the winter (the preferred time for these things),
      then perhaps a special designation is appropriate, such as sub-
      tropical, or some other designator tailored for the region.  But
      advisories from a TCWC (such as NHC) are appropriate."

      Michael Pitt (E):  "I would go on a case-by-case basis to determine
      their nature."

      Phil Smith (C):  "These seem to get more attention than perhaps any
      similar storms anywhere else in the world, probably because of their
      rarity, but also because of their sometimes impressive sat pic
      images.  Dare one apply the "duck" argument to them?"

      Bruce Harper (E):  "Not my call, but I'd like to think that a
      consistent/logical/agreed system can be devised.  Bottom line:  all
      severe weather systems should be classified, named and tracked so
      that they become visible to those needing to (a) warn, (b) be
      warned and (c) analyse overall risks and develop infrastructure
      design criteria, etc."

      Greg Holland (D):  "Certainly not tropical."

      Rich Henning (B):  "I think the same mechanisms are in place in
      the Med. Sea as we see in those systems described in (Question) #4,
      except the SSTs are even colder (approximately 65 or 68 F), with
      even colder conditions aloft initially generating the convection."

                       Analysis and Gary's Opinion

     Regarding Question #4, in addition to the well-known Mozambique
  Channel higher-latitude cyclones, I had in mind such eastern Atlantic
  systems as the early stages of Tropical Storm Nicole in 1998 (with
  Tropical Storm Peter of 2003 being a later example).   When Nicole was
  initially classified as a tropical storm, it was very small and exhibited
  quite shallow convection.  The storm, however, later became a hurricane.
  As can be seen from the survey results, respondents were split 50-50 on
  whether to call these systems tropical or subtropical.   I voted for
  'tropical', but admittedly it is a tough call.  Some of these continue to
  evolve into more of a classic tropical cyclone while others remain as
  fairly shallow convective systems.    However, if tropical/subtropical
  cyclone warnings are issued for them (such as La Reunion does and NHC has
  started doing), then whether they're called tropical or subtropical
  storms isn't of such paramount importance.   In either case they should
  be added to the appropriate Best Track database and flagged as to their

     As for the Mediterranean Sea cyclones, things get even fuzzier.  Some
  of these systems (such as the September ones) have formed over waters
  probably as warm as 22-24 C and are in essence no different from some
  Atlantic tropical cyclones forming over similar SSTs, e.g., Ivan and
  Karl of 1980.   At the other extreme some have formed in January over
  12-14 C SSTs.  It seems likely that these have much in common with
  polar LOWs.  Others fall in between and probably could be comfortably
  classified as subtropical cyclones.   The good thing about these systems
  is that they're isolated--they are confined to the Mediterranean Sea
  and are not likely to be contenders for influencing the tropical cyclone
  statistics of other basins (primarily the Atlantic).  Perhaps until the
  day comes when more studies of these systems can be made, the best plan
  might be to just call them "Mediterranean cyclones", or "Mediterranean
  convective cyclones" (another type of MCC!).  With regard to operational
  warnings, whatever warning format and nomenclature provides adequate
  protection to coastal populations and marine interests in the region
  should be acceptable to everyone else.

     The responses to these questions, however, bring up a very interesting
  side issue:  the oft-quoted 80-degree Fahrenheit or 26.7-degree Celsius
  SST threshold for tropical cyclone formation.   It was surprising to me
  to learn that even some U. S. researchers and meteorologists seem to
  think that a system must form over 80+ F water to be considered a
  tropical cyclone.   On the other hand, some are comfortable calling a
  Mediterranean cyclone forming over 15 C SSTs a tropical cyclone if it
  appears to be driven completely by sensible and latent heat fluxes from
  the ocean.  These differences of opinion drive home a point I tried to
  make in my comments in the May monthly feature about subtropical storms,
  and that is the lack of very detailed and comprehensive definitions to
  such terms as tropical cyclone, subtropical cyclone, front, etc.  I know
  of no official definition of a 'tropical cyclone' in any basin which
  specifies that it must form over some particular SST threshold, have
  a very tight wind center, exhibit anti-cyclonic outflow aloft, or have
  convection of some particular height or cold cloud tops of some parti-
  cular degree of coldness.   Yet, these things seem to influence what
  a given person may regard as necessary for classifying a system as a
  tropical cyclone.

     TPC/NHC has regularly classified systems forming over sub-26 C water
  as tropical cyclones for almost a third of a century.  And it is easy
  to see why.  SSTs of 26 C or higher cover much of the North Atlantic
  south of latitude 40N during the late summer and early autumn, and in
  particular the western Atlantic waters can be quite warm in the Gulf
  Stream.  Systems of definite baroclinic origin can spawn over these
  waters at subtropical latitudes and either slowly or quickly evolve
  into classic tropical cyclones.  One of the most famous examples is
  Hurricane Diana of September, 1984, which started as a frontal wave
  and in less than four days was a Category 4 hurricane.  Diana was
  directly over the Gulf Stream, but similar transformations (usually
  slower and not as intense) have occurred over marginal 26 C water,
  and no one would deny these tropical cyclone status.  So when another
  baroclinic disturbance a little further to the east transforms into
  an essentially identical system over 24 or 25 C SSTs, the common sense
  thing to do is to classify it as a tropical cyclone.    And so forth
  when another development occurs over 22 or 23 C water.   As Rich Henning
  and David Roth have pointed out, these systems usually rely on a steeper
  lapse rate than that normally found in the tropics to support the

     Chris Landsea has some information on this topic in the Frequently
  Asked Questions (FAQ) document on HRD's website:>

  The empirical 26 C SST treshold was first discussed by Erik Palmen after
  a study in the late 1940s.  This threshold seems to hold for regions
  with vertical temperature profiles typical of the tropical oceanic
  belts.  The average lapse rate over tropical oceans is not particularly
  all that steep, and the massive quantities of water vapor needed to
  provide moist conditional instability generally require SSTs of 26 C
  or greater.   But when conditions conspire to create a much steeper
  lapse rate (upper-level cold LOWs or strong surface sensible heating),
  the physical processes which drive deep tropical cyclones can operate
  over SSTs lower than the empirical 26 C threshold.

     However, just where to draw the line is a difficult question to
  answer.  One complicating factor in the minds of many is the existence
  of the polar LOWs (sometimes called Arctic cyclones in the Northern
  Hemisphere).  At least some of these storm systems seem to be non-frontal
  and have usually quite shallow convection, but also have weak warm cores
  and are quite similar to tropical cyclones in visual appearance in
  satellite imagery.  They usually form in winter when frigid Arctic air
  masses move out over open water which is very cold, but still above
  freezing, leading to strong surface heating.  This in turn sets up a
  very steep lapse rate in the lower levels, making the air convectively
  unstable.  (Small systems of this type are also sometimes noted over the
  Black Sea and the North American Great Lakes.)

     Several years ago David Roth and I had a discussion about all these
  convective systems of higher-latitude origin.  David drew a distinction
  between those in which the atmospheric instability was primarily at 
  lower levels and caused by the juxtaposition of cool/cold air masses 
  over relatively warmer waters (e.g., polar LOWS and maybe the wintertime
  Mediterranean cyclones), and those in which the instability of the
  atmosphere was enhanced at upper levels by cold pools of air and/or
  a lower tropopause (e.g., the typical Atlantic tropical cyclones forming
  in subtropical latitudes and perhaps some of the warmer season
  Mediterranean cyclones).

     Historically, tropical cyclones have been considered to be driven
  primarily by latent heat release, while it seems that in polar LOWs,
  with the much-reduced amount of water vapor available, strong surface
  (sensible) heating is what provides the instability for the convection
  with latent heating providing only a boost at rather low levels in the
  atmosphere.  For systems over "lukewarm" SSTs in the 22-26 C or so range,
  cold air aloft no doubt enhances the convection, but it seems likely that
  latent heat release is still the major source of energy driving the
  circulation, so in my opinion these systems (including cyclones like the
  recent Catarina) are best considered tropical cyclones.    However, for
  systems like some of the wintertime "Med-canes" over 12-14 C water, it
  does seem rather revolutionary to call them 'tropical cyclones'.  Perhaps
  such cyclones represent an approximate 50-50 contribution to their energy
  budgets by both latent heat release and sensible heating at the surface.

     I'll conclude with the same thrust that I made in last month's
  feature.  Regardless of how these systems are classified, whether they
  are named or not, and the style of warnings issued, the bottom line is
  that they should have warnings issued which will help to minimize loss
  of life and mitigate damage as much as possible.   However, a secondary
  (but still very important) goal should be the establishment of a reliable
  and consistent global tropical cyclone historical database with as much
  "signal noise" reduction as possible.  And, not meaning to offend anyone,
  but I personally think that this goal is one every forecaster and
  researcher in the tropical cyclone community should be concerned with.

                            ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones

                 Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for June

     No tropical depressions or storms formed in the Eastern North Pacific
  during June, but one tropical disturbance deserves mention.   During
  the early days of the month, a large, broad area of disturbed weather
  formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec and moved slowly west-northwestward
  for several days in close proximity to the southern coast of Mexico.
  From around the 6th to the 8th of June the system appeared slightly
  better organized with the potential to develop into a tropical
  depression, but convection had diminished significantly by the afternoon
  of 8 June.  Due to the system's close proximity to the Mexican coastline,
  the Tropical Weather Outlooks from TPC/NHC emphasized the threat of heavy
  rainfall and possible flooding in the mountainous region.


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for June:  4 typhoons
                      1 super typhoon

                         Sources of Information

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   In the companion
  tropical cyclone tracks file, I normally annotate track coordinates
  from some of the various Asian warning centers when their center
  positions differ from JTWC's by usually 40-50 nm or more.   All
  references to sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise noted.

     Michael V. Padua of Naga City in the Philippines, owner of the
  Typhoon 2000 website, normally sends me cyclone tracks based upon
  warnings issued by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the
  Philippines' Atmospheric, Geophysical & Astronomical Services
  Administration (PAGASA).  Also, Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City, China,
  sends data taken from synoptic observations around the Northwest
  Pacific basin.  A very special thanks to Michael and Chunliang for
  the assistance they so reliably provide.

     In the title line for each storm I have referenced all the cyclone
  names/numbers I have available:   JTWC's depression number, the 
  JMA-assigned name (if any), JMA's tropical storm numeric designator,
  and PAGASA's name for systems forming in or passing through their
  area of warning responsibility.

                Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for June

     The monsoon trough became well-established over Western Pacific waters
  as an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation pushed through,
  giving birth to no less than five typhoons.  And all the cyclones had
  rather significant effects on populated areas in the form of heavy
  rainfall and/or strong winds.  Typhoon Dianmu intensified into a very
  strong super typhoon with JTWC estimating the peak intensity at 155 kts.
  Reports follow on all the cyclones, authored by Kevin Boyle, except for
  Typhoon Tingting, which I wrote up.  Also, much meteorlogical data was
  supplied by Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China.

     Chunliang also sent me (thanks!) some statistics on early NWP seasons.
  The last time that five or more tropical cyclones formed in the month of
  June was 1961 when there were six.  In addition, the formation of eleven
  numbered tropical cyclones was the first such occurrence since 1971, when
  there were also eleven.

                            TYPHOON CONSON
                      (TC-07W / TY 0404 / FRANK)
                              4 - 11 June

  Conson: contributed by Vietnam, is a picturesque place in Haihung
          Province, consisting of a mountain, pine forest, streams, pagodas
          and many historical monuments

  A. Introduction

     Typhoon Conson was the second tropical cyclone of the year to form in
  the South China Sea.  It meandered close to Luzon for a day or so before
  accelerating northeastward and reaching a peak intensity of 95 kts, just
  short of major typhoon status.  After threatening Taiwan, Conson passed
  over the southern Japanese islands before becoming extratropical over

  B. Storm Origins

     Typhoon Conson started as an area of deep convection approximately
  420 nm south-southeast of Hong Kong.  Animated multi-spectral satellite
  imagery revealed a well-defined LLCC in association with this suspect
  area.  It was first mentioned in JTWC's STWO at 0200 UTC on 4 June with
  poor potential for development.  With a reasonably favourable environment
  to work in, the potential was raised to fair at 02/0600 UTC, and then
  upped to good at 04/1500 UTC.  The first warning on Tropical Depression
  07W followed at 1800 UTC with the system centred 260 nm west of Manila,

     Tropical Depression 07W meandered during the 5th roughly 250 nm or
  so west-northwest of Manila.  It moved in a sort of loop-de-loop fashion,
  first towards the southwest and west before ending up on a slow eastward
  drift.  Convection increased, mainly in the southern quadrants of the
  storm.  Based on CI estimates of 30 and 35 kts, the system was upgraded
  to a minimal tropical storm at 05/1200 UTC.   At the same time, PAGASA
  initiated warnings on the developing tropical system, christening it
  Tropical Depression Frank.  Strengthening continued as Tropical Storm
  07W/Frank began to curve onto a more northeasterly track with the MSW
  reaching 50 kts at 06/0600 UTC.  The slow northeasterly heading took the
  cyclone as close as 160 nm west-northwest of Manila at 1200 UTC.

  C. Synoptic History

     The latest prognosis indicated that a ridge over the central
  Philippines was expected to build and gradually push the tropical cyclone
  northward into the vicinity of Taiwan.    This was to be the case, but
  movement during the first part of the 7th was rather slow.  At 0000 UTC
  on 7 June the newly-named (by JMA) Tropical Storm Conson lay 360 nm
  south-southwest of Kaosiung, Taiwan.    Conson began to intensify more
  significantly and became a typhoon at 07/1800 UTC as it began to move at
  a faster pace towards the north.
     At 08/0000 UTC Typhoon Conson/Frank was moving north at 8 kts with
  65-kt peak sustained winds and located approximately 400 nm south-
  southwest of Taipei, Taiwan.  Strengthening continued and the MSW reached
  90 kts at 08/1800 UTC, a 10-kt increase for the 0600 UTC and 1200 UTC
  warnings, plus 5 kts during the next six hours.    Animated infrared
  satellite imagery revealed a well-defined 8-nm diameter eye which became
  irregular and had expanded a little to 15 nm by 1800 UTC.  The typhoon
  turned to a north-northeasterly to northeasterly heading which was to
  ultimately cause the storm (thankfully) to side-step Taiwan and spare the
  island the strongest winds.

     The MSW of Conson was still at 90 kts at 09/0000 UTC, by which time
  it was centred 235 nm south of Taipei and moving northeastward at 11 kts.
  Satellite imagery revealed that the eye had faded somewhat, but it
  gradually reappeared during the morning and became an obvious feature
  again by 09/1200 UTC.     Infrared enhancement revealed a warmer eye
  temperature at the time Conson reached its maximum intensity of 95 kts,
  and this was maintained for another six hours as the typhoon continued
  northeastward over the warm waters of the Kuroshio Current.

     After 0000 UTC on 10 June Typhoon Conson began to weaken quite quickly
  and take on extratropical characteristics as it passed 35 nm northwest of
  Okinawa at 10/0600 UTC.  Microwave imagery at 10/1200 UTC revealed a
  partially-exposed LLCC on the southern edge of the deep convection.  By
  this time the MSW had dropped to 65 kts and Conson continued northeast-
  ward towards Japan at almost 20 kts.  It was downgraded to a tropical
  storm at 1800 UTC, and extratropical transition was complete the next day
  at 11/0600 UTC, the time of the final warning issued by JTWC.  Conson was
  then moving northeastward at 26 kts, being located 155 nm southwest of
  Kyoto, Japan, with the MSW estimated at 40 kts.  The last reference to
  the ex-Conson low was in the 14/1200 UTC JMA bulletin when the system was
  approaching the Dateline.

     The peak 10-min avg MSW and minimum CP estimated by JMA were 75 kts
  and 960 mb, respectively.   Among the Asian TCWCs, NMCC's estimated peak
  MSW of 80 kts was the highest.

  D. Meteorological Observations

     The information in this section was sent by Huang Chunliang--a special
  thanks to Chunliang for sending the data.

  (1) Rainfall

  (a) Philippines

  0000 UTC 5 June - 0000 UTC 6 June
  WMO 98531 San Jose (12.4N, 121.0E, Alt 3 m)  154.6 mm 

  0000 UTC 6 June - 0000 UTC 7 June
  WMO 98426 Subic Bay (14.8N, 120.3E, Alt 19 m)  230.0 mm 
  WMO ----- Clark AB (15.2N, 120.6E, Alt 155 m)  135.0 mm
  WMO 98324 Iba (15.3N, 120.0E, Alt 5 m)  221.4 mm
  0000 UTC 7 June - 0000 UTC 8 June
  WMO 98324 Iba (15.3N, 120.0E, Alt 5 m)  112.4 mm

  (b) Okinawa

  (09/0000 UTC - 10/0000 UTC)
  WMO 47936 Naha (26.2N, 127.7E, 28 m)  212.5 mm
  WMO 47918 Ishigakijima (24.3N, 124.2E, Alt 7 m)  204.5 mm
  WMO 47927 Miyakojima (24.8N, 125.3E, Alt 41 m)  107.0 mm

  (c) Taiwan

  (08/1600 UTC-09/1600 UTC)

  CWB Station ID   County     Rainfall
      C1U68         Ilan      262.5 mm
      C0U64         Ilan      245.5 mm
      C1U67         Ilan      181.5 mm
      C1U69         Ilan      163.0 mm
  Note: The 24-hr rainfall accumulations recorded in Ilan County can be 
  considered as the storm totals.

  (d) Japan (Kyushu)

  (10/0000 UTC - 11/0000 UTC)
  WMO 47837 Tanegashima (30.7N, 131.0E, Alt 18 m)  277.5 mm
  WMO 47909 Naze (28.4N, 129.5E, Alt 7 m)  130.0 mm
  WMO 47830 Miyazaki (31.9N, 131.4E, Alt 9 m)  117.0 mm

  (2) Wind Observations

  Miyakojima, Okinawa (ROMY WMO47927 24.8N 125.3E Alt 40 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 57 kts (SSW) [09/1900Z]
  Peak gust: 100 kts (SW) [09/1850Z]
  Another sustained wind: 52 kts (SSW) [09/1850Z]

  Kumejima, Okinawa (ROKJ WMO47929 26.3N 126.8E Alt 4 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 52 kts (SE) [10/0200Z]
  Peak gust: 89 kts (SE) [10/0155Z]

  Ishigakijima, Okinawa (ROIG WMO47918 24.3N 124.2E Alt 6 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 49 kts (NNW) [09/1540Z]
  Peak gust: 82 kts (N) [09/1520Z]

  Naha, Okinawa (---- WMO47936 26.2N 127.7E Alt 28 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 32 kts (S) [10/0250Z]
  Peak gust: 54 kts (S) [10/0246Z]

  Nago, Okinawa (---- WMO47940 26.6N 128.0E Alt 6 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 31 kts (S) [10/0530Z]
  Peak gust: 52 kts (S) [10/0528Z]

  Tarama, Okinawa (---- JMA93061 24.7N 124.7E Alt 16 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 74 kts (NW) [time unknown]
  Another sustained wind: 58 kts (ENE) [09/1640Z]

  Naze, Kagoshima (---- WMO47909 28.4N 129.5E Alt 3 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 27 kts (S) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 75 kts (SE) [10/1223Z]

  Yakushima, Kagoshima (RJFC WMO47836 30.4N 130.7E Alt 36 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 48 kts (N) [10/2000Z]
  Peak gust: 72 kts (NNE) [10/1949Z]
  More gusts: 59 kts (NNE) [10/1910Z]; 68 kts (N) [10/1950Z]

  Aburatsu, Miyazaki (---- WMO47835 31.6N 131.4E Alt 3 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 42 kts (NNE) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 67 kts (NNE) [10/2207Z]

  Tanegashima, Kagoshima (---- WMO47837 30.7N 131.0E Alt 17 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 35 kts (NNW) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 79 kts (N) [10/2036Z]
  Another gust: 58 kts (NE) [10/2000Z]

  Kagoshima, Kagoshima (---- WMO47827 31.6N 130.6E Alt 4 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 19 kts (NNE) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 39 kts (NNE) [10/1949Z]

  Miyazaki, Miyazaki (---- WMO47830 31.9N 131.4E Alt 9 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 16 kts (SW) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 31 kts (N) [10/2131Z]

  Shimizu, Kochi (---- WMO47898 32.7N 133.0E Alt 31 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 26 kts (W) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 61 kts (SE) [time unknown]
  Another gust: 59 kts (SE) [11/0300Z]

  Murotomisaki, Kochi (---- WMO47899 33.3N 134.2E Alt 185 m)
  Peak sustained wind: 59 kts (ESE) [time unknown]
  Peak gust: 76 kts (SE) [time unknown]
  Another gust: 62 kts (SE) [11/0410Z]

  D. Damage and Casualties

     There were no reports of damage or casualties associated with Typhoon

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by Huang

                            TYPHOON CHANTHU
                       (TC-08W / TY 0405 / GENER)
                              7 - 15 June

  Chanthu: contributed by Cambodia, is a type of flower

  A. Introduction

     Typhoon Chanthu was the second significant tropical cyclone in June
  and the first of the year to adopt a straight-runner track through the
  Philippines, across the South China Sea en route to Vietnam.

  B. Storm Origins

     At 0600 UTC on 5 June an area of convection developed and persisted
  roughly 360 nm east-southeast of Yap.  In response to this development
  JTWC included this new suspect area in their routine STWO.   Animated
  multi-spectral satellite imagery revealed disorganized deep convection
  about a weak LLCC.  An upper-level analysis indicated weak diffluence
  and light vertical wind shear and the potential for development was
  assessed as poor.  It was upgraded to fair status at 15/1200 UTC (and
  the disturbance relocated to a position 290 nm east-southeast of Yap) 
  after convection consolidated over the associated LLCC.  However, the
  disturbance was no longer considered a suspect area at 06/0600 UTC and 
  was dropped from JTWC's STWOs.

     The regeneration of the disturbance at 0600 UTC on 7 June prompted
  JTWC to once again mention the system in their regular STWOs.    The
  potential for development was reassessed as poor.  Multi-spectral imagery
  showed sporadic deep convection occurring over a developing LLCC, which
  was at this time located 210 nm east of Koror.  The development potential
  was upgraded to fair at 08/0030 UTC, and then raised to good.   Since the
  time of its re-introduction the suspect area had been really motoring
  westward and was located only 50 nm southeast of Dapa, Philippines, deep
  within PAGASA's territory at 08/2000 UTC--the time that JTWC issued an
  TCFA.  PAGASA had named the system Tropical Depression Gener at 1200 UTC
  on the 7th when bulletins were initiated.

  C. Synoptic History

     The first JTWC warning was issued at 0000 UTC on 9 June with the
  system centred 430 nm southeast of Manila and about to make landfall on
  southern Leyte Island.  TC-08W/Gener began its career as a 40-kt tropical
  storm, but only a 5-kt increase in MSW had occurred by late on the 9th.
  By the end of the first day of its existence, TS-08W/Gener had completed
  its journey across the Philippine Archipelago and was about to cross into
  the South China Sea.     JTWC's Prognostic Reasoning message correctly
  predicted that TS-08W/Gener's intensity would remain constant during its
  passage across the Philippines, and forecast strengthening as the cyclone
  moved west through an area of low shear and warmer SSTs in the South
  China Sea.

     Tropical Storm Gener continued its brisk west to west-northwesterly
  movement along the southwest periphery of the subtropical ridge and its
  associated tropical easterly flow.  At 10/0000 UTC the system was located
  190 nm south-southwest of Manila.  Gener stuttered a little as the MSW
  fluctuated between 40-45 kts and the convection became somewhat
  disorganized for awhile.  Although QuikScat imagery showed a well-defined
  LLCC, enhanced infrared animations showed a partially-exposed centre with
  cycling convection.  During the day Tropical Storm 08W/Gener slowed, and
  by 1800 UTC was moving west-northwestward at 7 kts.

     At 10/1800 Tropical Storm 08W was named Chanthu after JMA finally
  upgraded the system to tropical storm intensity.  Chanthu was centred
  some 740 nm southeast of Hanoi, Vietnam, and moving west-northwestward
  at a faster pace again with 45-kt winds.  Now that it was moving over
  the warm waters of the South China Sea, strengthening began.  By 11/1800
  UTC the MSW had risen to 60 kts, and although poleward outflow was
  decreasing, animated enhanced infrared imagery indicated that the 
  equatorward exhaust was improving slightly.

     Chanthu reached typhoon status at 12/0000 UTC while located
  approximately 540 nm southeast of Hanoi, Vietnam.   Moving westward at
  13 to 15 kts, it continued to intensify, reaching a peak of 75 kts at
  12/0600 UTC.  At this time Chanthu was located 200 nm southeast of Hue,
  Vietnam.  Typhoon Chanthu made landfall near Qui Nhon, Vietnam, at
  12/1200 UTC with a MSW of 70 kts.  The storm weakened quickly as it moved
  further inland.  Chanthu was downgraded to a 55-kt tropical storm at
  12/1800 UTC, and then to a tropical depression the next day at 0600 UTC.
  The final warning was issued by JTWC at 13/0600 UTC, locating the center
  180 nm southwest of Hue, Vietnam.    The remnants of Typhoon Chanthu
  lingered for a few days as it slowly moved northwestward across Southeast
  Asia.    The circulation was barely discernible in satellite imagery by
  the 15th.

     The minimum CP estimated by Japan was 970 mb.  JMA, NMCC, the Central
  Weather Bureau of Taiwan and the Thai Meteorological Department all
  classified Chanthu as a 65-kt typhoon at its peak.  However, the HKO
  did not upgrade Chanthu to typhoon status, instead estimating the peak
  intensity at 55 kts (10-min avg).

  D. Meteorological Observations

     The following meteorological observations were all sent by Huang
  Chunliang.  A special thanks to Chunliang for sending the information.

  (1) Rainfall Observations from Vietnam

  Station      WMO ID  Lat    Lon   Alt (m)  Rain (mm)  Time Period (UTC)
  Quy Nhon *   48870  13.8N  109.2E    6      238.9     11/1200 - 12/1200
  Hue          48852  16.4N  107.6E    9      124.3     11/1200 - 12/1200

  * - very near where Chanthu made landfall

  (2) Rainfall Observations from Thailand

  Station      WMO ID  Lat    Lon   Alt (m)  Rain (mm)  Time Period (UTC)
  Khlong Yai   48501  11.8N  102.9E    4      140.2     13/0000 - 14/0000
  Ubon R. *    48407  15.3N  104.9E  127      110.5     13/0000 - 14/0000
  Bua Chum     48418  15.3N  101.2E   50      106.8     13/0000 - 14/0000
  Ubon R. *    48407  15.3N  104.9E  127      115.2     13/0600 - 14/0600
  Bua Chum     48418  15.3N  101.2E   50      111.3     13/0600 - 14/0600
  Surin        48432  14.9N  103.5E  147      192.6     13/0600 - 14/0600
  Tha Tum      48416  15.3N  103.7E  129      112.1     13/0600 - 14/0600
  Surin        48432  14.9N  103.5E  147      194.1     13/1200 - 14/1200
  Surin        48432  14.9N  103.5E  147      140.6     13/1800 - 14/1800
  Phitsanulok  48378  16.8N  100.3E   45      112.2     13/1800 - 14/1800
  Phitsanulok  48378  16.8N  100.3E   45      121.1     14/0000 - 15/0000
  Ranong       48532  10.0N   98.6E    8      115.8     14/0000 - 15/0000
  Kosumphisai  -----  16.2N  103.1E  154      101.1     14/0000 - 15/0000
  Phitsanulok  48378  16.8N  100.3E   45      131.5     14/0600 - 15/0600
  Ranong       48532  10.0N   98.6E    8      126.5     14/0600 - 15/0600
  Nong Khai    48352  17.9N  102.7E  175      121.6     14/0600 - 15/0600
  Nong Khai    48352  17.9N  102.7E  175      135.6     14/1200 - 15/1200
  Uttaradit    48351  17.6N  100.1E   64      148.5     14/1200 - 15/1200
  Ranong       48532  10.0N   98.6E    8      114.2     14/1200 - 15/1200
  Nong Khai    48352  17.9N  102.7E  175      134.3     14/1800 - 15/1800
  Uttaradit    48351  17.6N  100.1E   64      180.6     14/1800 - 15/1800
  Ranong       48532  10.0N   98.6E    8      108.6     14/1800 - 15/1800
  Nong Khai    48352  17.9N  102.7E  175      126.9     15/0000 - 16/0000
  Uttaradit    48351  17.6N  100.1E   64      193.0     15/0000 - 16/0000
  Ranong       48532  10.0N   98.6E    8      114.0     15/0000 - 16/0000
  Nan          48331  18.8N  100.8E  201      143.5     15/0000 - 16/0000
  Phrae        48330  18.2N  100.2E  162      119.0     15/0000 - 16/0000
  Uttaradit    48351  17.6N  100.1E   64      212.7     15/0600 - 16/0600
  Ranong       48532  10.0N   98.6E    8      108.0     15/0600 - 16/0600
  Nan          48331  18.8N  100.8E  201      216.7     15/0600 - 16/0600
  Phrae        48330  18.2N  100.2E  162      197.3     15/0600 - 16/0600
  Nan          48331  18.8N  100.8E  201      211.9     15/1200 - 16/1200
  Phrae        48330  18.2N  100.2E  162      170.3     15/1200 - 16/1200
  Phrae        48330  18.2N  100.2E  162      167.2     15/1800 - 16/1800

  * - full name of station is Ubon Ratchathani

  (3) Rainfall Observations from the Philippines

  Station      WMO ID  Lat    Lon   Alt (m)  Rain (mm)  Time Period (UTC)
  Roxas        98538  11.6N  122.8E    4      150.2     09/0000 - 10/0000
  Iloilo       98637  10.7N  122.6E    8      117.0     09/0000 - 10/0000

  E. Damage and Casualties

     According to a news report, Typhoon Chanthu killed seven people and
  left five persons injured.  Five fishermen died when their boat sank off
  the coast of Binh Dinh province while another was crushed in a separate
  incident as strong winds forced two boats against the dock.    Seven
  fishermen were reported missing.  The typhoon damaged or destroyed more
  than 180 houses in Binh Dinh province.  No damage estimates are available
  at the time of this writing.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang)

                         SUPER TYPHOON DIANMU
                      (TC-09W / TY 0406 / HELEN)
                             12 - 23 June

  Dianmu: contributed by China, is the 'Mother of the Lightning',
          the goddess in charge of thunder and lightning

  A. Introduction

     Dianmu was the third of five significant tropical cyclones during
  June and also the third super typhoon of the year.  It formed in the
  vicinity of Yap, rapidly reaching a peak intensity of 155 kts before
  weakening and making landfall in Japan as a tropical storm.  The
  following is a list of tropical cyclones that have reached 155 kts
  within the past ten years:

       1995 - Angela (see note)
       1997 - Keith
       1998 - Zeb
       2000 - Damrey
       2001 - Faxai

     Since 1990, only four storms have been stronger than 155 kts.  They
  are:  STYs Ivan & Joan (1997), STY Paka (1997), and STY Gay (1992). 
  Super Typhoons that have reached 150 kts include Mike (1990), Yuri 
  (1991), and Maemi (2003).

  NOTE:  There is strong reason to suspect that STY Angela was stronger
  than the current Best Track intensity of 155 kts.   Dr. Karl Hoarau
  performed a detailed study of intense super typhoons of the post-
  reconnaissance era, and concluded that likely STY Gay of 1992 peaked
  at around 165 kts, and that Angela's peak was possibly near 170 kts.  
  Karl's paper was presented at the AMS 26th Conference on Hurricanes 
  and Tropical Meteorology at Miami in May, 2004.

  B. Storm Origins

     At 0600 UTC on 11 June a new convective area developed and persisted 
  within the monsoon trough approximately 340 nm east-southeast of Palau
  Island.  It was added to JTWC's STWOs at this time, and the potential
  for development was given as poor.   Animated multi-spectral imagery 
  showed a possible LLCC with some deep convection.  The suspect area was 
  within a favourable environment of weak vertical wind shear and good
  diffluence.  In the next regular STWO at 12/0600 UTC the potential was 
  upped to fair.  From there, the system proceeded to develop quickly, 
  and a 12/2115 UTC SSM/I pass depicted spiraling rainbands curving into 
  the centre.   No TCFA was issued and JTWC released the first warning at
  13/0000 UTC.

  C. Synoptic History

     At the time of the initial warning Tropical Depression 09W was located
  100 nm south-southwest of Yap and moving slowly west-northwestward at
  3 kts.  Because of the threat to Yap and Palau, the National Weather
  Service in Guam began writing special advisories at 13/0328 UTC.  TC-09W
  remained at depression status until 13/1800 UTC when it was upgraded to
  Tropical Storm Dianmu, JMA having raised their MSW to 40 kts (10-min
  avg).   Both enhanced infrared and water vapor imagery indicated
  increasing poleward outflow thanks to an upper-level LOW to the north-
  east, and forecasts indicated that this would be enhanced further as a
  shortwave trough approached from the northwest.

     By 14/0000 UTC JTWC had increased the MSW to 45 kts, and multi-
  spectral and QuikScat imagery both indicated that Tropical Storm 
  Dianmu had consolidated to the southeast of the 13/1800 UTC warning
  position.  Dianmu was essentially stationary approximately 100 nm west 
  of Yap as it continued its strengthening phase, reaching typhoon 
  intensity at 1800 UTC.  At this time microwave imagery indicated that 
  an eye could be forming, but this feature was not yet visible in 
  infrared imagery.  In addition to the poleward outflow, Dianmu had also
  acquired an excellent equatorward exhaust channel.  The typhoon was 
  centred just 85 nm north-northwest of Yap, the island lying within the 
  zone of gale-force winds.  Special advisories issued by the NWS mentioned
  that damaging winds were affecting Yap, but fortunately for the island
  community, Dianmu was beginning to move toward the north-northeast away 
  from the island. 

     The 15th of June was a day of very significant intensification for 
  Dianmu.  At 0000 UTC it was a 70-kt typhoon located 110 nm north-
  northwest of Yap.  The eye feature was still evident in microwave imagery
  but not in multi-spectral.    By 15/1200 UTC the eye had appeared in
  satellite imagery as the MSW reached 120 kts.   Moving north to north-
  northwest at speeds ranging from 6 to 9 kts, Dianmu strengthened into a
  super typhoon with a MSW of 145 kts by the time of the 1800 UTC warning.
  Enhanced infrared imagery revealed a symmetrical eye measuring 15 nm
  across.  In addition, the typhoon exhibited excellent outflow in both
  poleward and equatorward directions.

     At 16/0000 UTC Super Typhoon Dianmu, now with a MSW of 150 kts, 
  was moving northward at 9 kts from a position approximately 300 nm 
  north-northwest of Yap.  The Prognostic Reasoning message issued at 
  this time indicated that the northward heading would continue along 
  the western periphery of the steering ridge located toward the 
  northeast.  The warning issued at 16/0000 UTC indicated the possibility 
  of Dianmu strengthening to 160 kts in 12 hours.   However, the peak 
  intensity of Dianmu stopped 5 kts short of this value at 16/0600 UTC, 
  the MSW remaining at 155 kts for the rest of the day.   The wind radii 
  were representative of an average-sized system and were as follows: 
  winds of typhoon force extended 40 nm in all quadrants, the radius of 
  50-kt winds was 70 nm in all but the southeast quadrant (75 nm), and
  gale-force winds extended out 150 nm in the southeast quadrant and 
  140 nm elsewhere.   (Super Typhoon Dianmu entered PAGASA's AOR on 
  16 June at about the time of its peak intensity, receiving the name 
  Helen from that warning agency.)

     At 0000 UTC on 17 June Super Typhoon Dianmu/Helen was centered 675 nm
  southeast of Okinawa, moving northwestward at 9 kts.  The MSW began to
  fall off and enhanced infrared imagery indicated that the eye temperature
  had cooled.  By 1200 UTC the intensity of Dianmu was hovering at 130 kts
  as the storm took a jog towards the west-northwest for the next twelve
  hours.  When Dianmu fell below super typhoon strength at 17/1800 UTC its
  eye was cloud-filled and poleward diffluence had weakened significantly.

     The next day Dianmu underwent a mini rejuvenation phase.  This 
  coincided with its northwestward passage over the slightly warmer 
  Kuroshio Current.    The typhoon was a 115-kt storm at 0000 UTC on
  18 June approximately 520 nm south-southeast of Okinawa, and regained
  super typhoon intensity (MSW of 130 kts) at 18/1200 UTC.  At this time,
  enhanced infrared and water vapor imagery showed a much improved poleward
  and equatorward diffluence pattern.  Dianmu exhibited a 25-nm eye which
  began to warm.  This indicated that the secondary peak had been reached
  and Dianmu was downgraded back to a 125-kt typhoon at 18/1800 UTC.

     At 0000 UTC on 19 June Typhoon Dianmu was centred 255 nm south-
  southeast of Okinawa and was beginning its turn toward the north.  At 
  this time, multi-spectral satellite imagery showed a ragged, cloud-filled
  eye with the majority of the deep convection occurring in the southern 
  quadrants.  A "lane" was also evident in infrared satellite imagery as a 
  result of dry air entrainment in the northwest quadrant.  Weakening 
  commenced during the day with the MSW dropping below 100 kts at 
  19/1800 UTC. 

     By 20/0000 UTC Typhoon Dianmu's radius of 50-kt winds were 
  encroaching on Okinawa as the storm passed 75 nm to the east of the 
  island.  The weakening typhoon's outflow had diminished in all 
  directions, deep convection had been eroded away in the western semi-
  circle, and the MSW had fallen to 80 kts.  The system was beginning to 
  interact with a trough located to the northwest of the system.  Dianmu 
  maintained typhoon-force winds until 20/1800 UTC when the intensity 
  dropped below the typhoon threshold.  At this time, the dying storm was
  located 175 nm south of Iwakuni, Japan.
     Now that Dianmu was entering the baroclinic zone, the storm began to 
  accelerate and rapidly take on extratropical characteristics.  It made 
  landfall near the city of Muroto on the island of Shikoku in southern 
  Japan early on the 21st, crossed the main island of Honshu, from there 
  moving into Hokkaido before heading out into the North Pacific as an
  extratropical system.   JTWC issued their final warning at 21/1800 UTC, 
  locating the center approximately 80 nm northwest of Misawa, Japan.
  The final JMA bulletin referencing ex-Dianmu placed a weakening 35-kt
  gale center in the Sea of Okhotsk east of Sakhalin Island at 1200 UTC
  on 23 June.
     JMA's peak MSW (10-min avg) and minimum CP for Super Typhoon 
  Dianmu/Helen were 100 kts and 915 mb, respectively.   PAGASA's and 
  NMCC's peak MSW estimates (10-min avg) were 105 kts and 130 kts, 

  D. Meteorological Observations

     The following observations were sent by Huang Chunliang--a special
  thanks to Chunliang for sending the data.

  (1) Rainfall

     (a) Falalop Island, Ulithi Atoll (WMO 91203, 10.0N/139.8E, 5 m)
         recorded 102.8 mm of rain from 12/0000 to 13/0000 UTC.

     (b) Koror, Palau (WMO 91408, 7.3N/134.5E, 30 m) recorded 121.7 mm
         from 13/0000-14/0000 UTC, and 115.6 mm from 13/0600-14/0600 UTC.

     (c) Owase, Japan (WMO 47663, 34.1N/136.2E, 27 m) measured a 24-hour
         accumulation of 207.5 mm from 21/0000 to 22/0000 UTC.

  (2) Sustained Wind Observations

      Station     Prefecture  WMO ID   Lat/Lon     Alt  Dir Kts   UTC
  Minamidaitojima  Okinawa    47945  25.8N/131.2E   15  SE  43  19/1630
         "            "         "         "          "  SSE 50  19/1830
         "            "         "         "          "  SSE 56  19/2130
  Kitakaitojima *     "       -----  -----/------   --  SSE 49  19/1630
         "            "       -----  -----/------   --  SSE 51  19/1920
         "            "       -----  -----/------   --  S   54  19/2140
  Naha                "       47936  26.2N/127.7E   28  N   32  19/1620
  Naha                "         "         "          "  NNW 37  19/1920
  Naha                "         "         "          "  NNW 39  19/2020
  Nago                "       47940  26.6N/128.0E    6  NNE 32  19/1620
  Fukuoka          Fukuoka    47807  33.6N/130.4E    3  N   21  21/0200
  Sasebo           Nagasaki   47812  33.2N/129.7E    4  N   25  20/1850
  Oita             Oita       47815  33.2N/131.6E    5  SSE 22  20/0430
  Hagi             Yamaguchi  47754  34.4N/131.4E    6  S   21  19/2230
  Saga             Saga       47813  33.3N/130.3E    6  NE  23  20/1130
  Asosan           Kumamoto   47821  32.9N/131.1E 1142  ENE 25  20/2230
  Nagoya           Aichi      47636  35.2N/137.0E   51  SSE 31  21/0620
  Gifu             Gifu       47632  35.4N/136.8E   13  SSE 33  21/0620
  Tsu              Mie        47651  34.7N/136.5E    3  SE  50  21/0320
  Omaezaki         Shizuoka   47655  34.6N/138.2E   45  S   30  21/0640
     "                "         "         "          "  SSW 31  21/0840
  Tsuruga          Fukui      47631  35.7N/136.1E    2  SE  32  21/0250
  Kanazawa         Ishikawa   47605  36.6N/136.7E    6  WSW 26  21/1040
  Niigata          Niigata    47604  37.9N/139.1E    2  ESE 26  21/0840
  Shirakawa        Fukushima  47597  37.1N/140.2E  355  S   28  21/1110
      "                "        "         "          "  SSW 33  21/1450
  Akita            Akita      47582  39.7N/140.1E    6  ESE 24  21/1210
  Sakata           Yamagata   -----  38.9N/139.9E    3  ESE 25  21/1050
     "                 "      -----       "          "  ESE 24  21/1210
  Ishinomaki       Miyazaki   47592  -----/------   43  SE  37  21/1300
      "                "        "    -----/------    "  SE  39  21/1340
  Morioka          Iwate      47584  39.7N/141.2E  155  S   24  21/1750
  Hachinohe        Aomori     47581  40.5N/141.5E   27  SE  27  21/1420

  * - Kitadaitojima is the neighboring island northeast of Minamidaitojima

  (3) Wind Gust Observations

      Station     Prefecture  WMO ID   Lat/Lon     Alt  Dir  Kts   UTC
  Minamidaitojima  Okinawa    47945  25.8N/131.2E   15  SE   60  19/1009
         "            "         "         "          "  SE   71  19/1350
         "            "         "         "          "  SE   75  19/1542
         "            "         "         "          "  SSE  87  19/1750
         "            "         "         "          "  SSE  95  19/2120
  Naha                "       47936  26.2N/127.7E   28  N    53  19/1624
  Naha                "         "         "          "  N    59  19/1729
  Naha                "         "         "          "  NNW  61  19/2203
  Nago                "       47940  26.6N/128.0E    6  NNE  59  19/1550
  Nago                "         "         "          "  N    61  19/1959
  Okinoerabu       Kagoshima  47942  27.4N/128.7E   27  NE   57  19/1947
  Naze             Kagoshima  47909  28.4N/129.5E    3  N    61  20/0115
  Shimizu          Kochi      47898  32.7N/133.0E   31  E    70  20/1950
  Murotomisaki     Kochi      47899  33.3N/134.2E  185  ESE  78  20/1832
        "             "         "         "          "  ESE 100  20/2219
        "             "         "         "          "  SE  108  20/2240
        "             "         "         "          "  SE  111  unknown
  Fukuoka          Fukuoka    47807  33.6N/130.4E    3  N    39  21/0156
  Izuhara          Nagasaki   47800  34.2N/129.3E    4  NW   44  21/0058
  Oita             Oita       47815  33.2N/131.6E    5  SE   36  20/0248
  Hagi             Yamaguchi  47754  34.4N/131.4E    6  S    41  20/0457
  Saga             Saga       47813  33.3N/130.3E    6  N    33  20/2234
  Asosan           Kumamoto   47821  32.9N/131.1E 1142  ENE  66  20/2217
  Uwajima          Ehime      47892  33.2N/132.6E    2  NNE  49  20/1600
  Nagoya           Aichi      47636  35.2N/137.0E   51  SSE  65  21/0619
  Gifu             Gifu       47632  35.4N/136.8E   13  SE   65  21/0548
  Tsu              Mie        47651  34.7N/136.5E    3  ESE  67  21/0314
  Omaezaki         Shizuoka   47655  34.6N/138.2E   45  S    52  21/0638
     "                "         "         "          "  S    54  21/0711
  Tsuruga          Fukui      47631  35.7N/136.1E    2  ESE  77  21/0248
  Kanazawa         Ishikawa   47605  36.6N/136.7E    6  SSW  29  21/0951
  Niigata          Niigata    47604  37.9N/139.1E    2  E    42  21/0839
  Shirakawa        Fukushima  47597  37.1N/140.2E  355  S    52  21/1236
      "                "        "         "          "  S    57  21/1456
  Akita            Akita      47582  39.7N/140.1E    6  ESE  45  21/1238
  Sakata           Yamagata   -----  38.9N/139.9E    3  ESE  42  21/1102
     "                 "      -----       "          "  ESE  45  21/1238
  Ishinomaki       Miyazaki   47592  -----/------   43  SE   57  21/1257
  Morioka          Iwate      47584  39.7N/141.2E  155  S    39  21/1735
  Hachinohe        Aomori     47581  40.5N/141.5E   27  ESE  53  21/1419

  E. Damage and Casualties

     At the time of this writing three people are known to have been 
  killed with three persons reported missing as a result of Typhoon 
  Dianmu's passage across Japan.  Airline services and rail transport 
  were disrupted, and the typhoon forced nine oil refineries to temporarily
  halt operations.  Damage due to the storm appears to have been minimal.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang)

                           TYPHOON MINDULLE
                       (TC-10W / TY 0407 / IGME)
                           23 June - 5 July

  Mindulle: contributed by North Korea, is the name of a flower,
            the dandelion

  A. Introduction

     As Super Typhoon Dianmu was spending the last of its energy over 
  Japan, Typhoon Mindulle began forming north-northeast of Guam. 
  Mindulle remained a tropical storm for several days as it passed through
  a high-shear environment before becoming a near super typhoon.   The
  storm then weakened before veering north and crossing Taiwan where the
  poorly-defined LLCC led to significant differences in fixes between the
  different warning agencies.  After striking Taiwan Mindulle moved toward

  B. Storm Origins

     The area of deep convection that was to become Mindulle originated 
  from the leading edge of a monsoon gyre and was first mentioned in 
  JTWC's STWO issued at 0100 UTC on 21 June.  At this time, multi-
  spectral imagery located a possible LLCC approximately 180 nm south 
  of Guam.  As the suspect area was located in a moderate vertical shear 
  environment with weak diffluence aloft, the development potential was 
  assessed as poor.   Based on increasing organization, the potential for 
  development was then upgraded to fair at 22/1300 UTC.   A TCFA was 
  issued at 23/0000 UTC for an area of convection that had persisted 
  over the past 12 hours to the west of a fully-exposed LLCC and which 
  was moving north-northwestward at 6 kts near 15.5N/144.8E.   Based on 
  the increasing organization of the storm, increasing deep convection 
  and upper-level outflow, the STWO released at 23/0600 UTC indicated 
  that JTWC would be issuing warnings on the system shortly.

  C. Synoptic History

     The first warning was issued as promised at 0600 UTC on 23 June on 
  Tropical Depression Mindulle (JMA had already named this system) which
  was moving west-northwestward at 8 kts with a MSW of 30 kts.  The LLCC,
  located approximately 170 nm north-northwest of Guam, was partially-
  exposed to the east of the deep convection.  At 23/1200 UTC Mindulle was
  upgraded to a tropical storm as it turned first northwestward, then back
  to the west-northwest and accelerated to around 11-13 kts.

     By 24/0000 UTC Mindulle was tracking westward as a 45-kt tropical 
  storm approximately 335 nm west-northwest of Saipan, the LLCC still 
  partially-exposed on the northeast side of the deep convection.  This
  was to be the case for several days as the system moved west to west-
  southwestward through a high shear environment, as depicted in CIMSS 
  Wind Shear Products, with upper-level winds reaching 50 to 60 kts in
  places.  However, Mindulle fought on and reached an intensity of 55 kts
  at 24/1800 UTC.
     At 0000 UTC on 25 June Mindulle (named Igme by PAGASA when it 
  entered their AOR) had weakened to 45 kts as the shearing began to 
  take its toll.  At this time the centre was fully-exposed again, being
  located approximately 810 nm east of Manila, Philippines.   For some
  reason Mindulle suddenly slammed on the brakes, decelerating from
  19 kts (at 24/1800 UTC) to only 4 kts, then accelerated back up to 
  11 kts six hours later.   Shearing conditions began to relax and by 
  25/1200 UTC the centre was no longer exposed, at least temporarily. 
  The MSW was brought back up to 50 kts at 25/1200 UTC as microwave
  imagery revealed that the LLCC had become partially-exposed again.  The
  intensity of Mindulle held steady at 50 kts through much of the 26th (at
  0000 UTC 26 June microwave imagery revealed that the LLCC had decoupled
  to the northeast of the deep convection and upper-level circulation) with
  a slight increase in intensity to 55 kts at 1800 UTC.    At this time,
  microwave imagery suggested that a 70-nm eye could be forming.

     During the last two days, Mindulle's west to west-northwesterly 
  movement took it to within 475 nm east-northeast of Manila at 0000 
  UTC on 27 June.   At this time the cyclone began to track toward the
  northwest.  Further intensification took place as a large eye appeared,
  and Mindulle was upgraded to a typhoon at 27/0600 UTC.   The MSW was
  estimated to have reached 80 kts at 27/1800 UTC as the storm underwent
  a stair-stepping movement which continued into the next day.  The MSW
  increased to 95 kts at 28/0000 UTC, and Mindulle reached its peak 
  intensity of 125 kts at 28/1800 UTC (and this was maintained through 
  the 29th).  The typhoon was moving more slowly in a weaker steering 
  environment between two HIGHs by this time with one HIGH building 
  eastward across China while the other was retreating to the east of 
  Okinawa.  The result was a slow west to west-northwesterly movement 
  for several days. 

     At 0000 UTC on 30 June Typhoon Mindulle was still moving slowly 
  west-northwestward, being located approximately 350 nm south of 
  Taipei, Taiwan.  A steady weakening trend had begun as the centre 
  moved as close as 60 nm north of Luzon, Philippines.  By 30/1200 UTC 
  the MSW had fallen to 90 kts as the storm turned northwestward.  At 
  this time Mindulle exhibited a partially-exposed LLCC, as depicted in 
  animated satellite imagery.  At 30/1800 UTC Mindulle veered sharply to 
  the north due to the formation of a TUTT-like feature to its northwest. 
  Weakening continued into the next day as Mindulle, now on a definitive 
  northward heading, began its approach to Taiwan. 
     At 0000 UTC on 1 July Typhoon Mindulle's MSW was down to 75 kts and it
  was centred 180 nm south of Taipei, Taiwan.  Most of the associated deep
  convection was located south of the LLCC.   As the storm continued north-
  ward, its track bent to the northwest at 01/0600 UTC before resuming its
  northward course at 01/1200 UTC.  At this time the system appeared to be
  consolidating but was downgraded to a 55-kt tropical storm after making
  landfall over Taiwan.      Interaction with the mountains of Taiwan
  significantly weakened the storm further with winds soon down to 45 kts.
  The following day at 0600 UTC Mindulle was centred roughly over the
  northern end of Taiwan, but because of the difficulty in locating the
  LLCC there were differences of opinion in the actual position.  Some
  agencies were apparently fixing the centre on the western side of Taiwan.
  JTWC considered this to be a circulation centre created by the leeside
  effect.  The absence of QuikScat data, microwave imagery and the lack of
  synoptic observations failed to shed any light on the matter.

     Typhoon Mindulle failed to recover from its excursion across Taiwan. 
  At 0000 UTC on 3 July the storm had weakened further to 35 kts and was
  moving north-northeastward at 9 kts approximately 150 nm north-northeast
  of Taipei.  The 03/0600 UTC warning relocated the centre roughly 80 nm 
  to the northwest of the previous position to 28.4N/121.7E, or 380 nm 
  southwest of Cheju Do.   The relocation was based on a combination of 
  QuikScat, the Korean analysis, and the NCEP GFS initial panel which all
  indicated that Mindulle was actually located along the coast of China 
  (see the following note from Huang Chunliang).  The system continued to
  move north-northeastward as a fully-exposed system with very little deep
  convection and was downgraded to a tropical depression at 03/1800 UTC.
  What was left of Mindulle accelerated northeastward to 22 kts at 04/0000
  UTC, then slowed to 14 kts as it headed toward Korea.  The final warning
  was issued six hours later when the system was centred 90 nm southwest of
  Kunsan, Korea.  JMA mentioned the ex-Mindulle system as a developing LOW
  and monitored it through the 5th, when it had weakened below gale force
  in the central Sea of Japan.

     JMA's and PAGASA's peak 10-min avg MSW estimates for Mindulle were
  90 kts and 105 kts, respectively.  The minimum CP estimated by JMA was
  940 hPa.

  Huang Chunliang's Note--Landfall 1:  According to the CWB warnings, Weak
  Typhoon 0407 (Mindulle) made landfall approximately 20 km south of
  Huanlien City, Taiwan around 01/1440 UTC with a MSW of 58 kts and a CP
  of 975 hPa.

  Landfall 2: According to the NMC warnings, Severe Tropical Storm 
  0407 (Mindulle) made landfall in Huanghua Town, Yueqing City (a sub-city
  of Wenzhou City), Zhejiang around 03/0130 UTC with a MSW of 49 kts and
  a CP of 985 hPa.

  D. Meteorological Observations

     The following observations were sent by Huang Chunliang--a special
  thanks to Chunliang for sending the data.

  (1) Rainfall Observations from the Philippines

  (only amounts greater than 100 mm are listed)

  Station      WMO ID  Lat    Lon   Alt (m)  Rain (mm)  Time Period (UTC)
  Baguio       98223  16.4N  120.6E 1501      124.6     28/0000 - 29/0000
     "           "      "       "      "      444.2     29/0000 - 30/0000
     "           "      "       "      "      443.9     30/0000 - 01/0000
     "           "      "       "      "     1012.7     28/0000 - 01/0000
  Laoag        98223  18.2N  120.5E    5      289.6     29/0000 - 30/0000
    "            "      "       "      "      288.8     30/0000 - 01/0000
  Calayan      98133  19.3N  121.5E   13      161.2     29/0000 - 30/0000
  Vigan        98222  17.6N  120.4E   33      136.0     30/0000 - 01/0000
  Dagupan      98325  16.1N  120.3E    2      100.6     30/0000 - 01/0000

  (2) Rainfall Observations from Taiwan - WMO Stations

  (only amounts greater than 100 mm are listed)

  Station      WMO ID  Lat    Lon   Alt (m)  Rain (mm)  Time Period (UTC)
  Chenggong    46761  23.1N  121.4E   37      352.0     30/1600 - 01/1600
  Hualien      46699  24.0N  121.6E   19      217.0     30/1600 - 01/1600
  Taitung      46766  22.8N  121.2E   10      204.5     30/1600 - 01/1600
  Lanyu        46762  22.0N  121.6E  325      139.0     30/1600 - 01/1600
  Dawu         46754  22.4N  120.9E    8      128.0     30/1600 - 01/1600
  Hengchun     46759  22.0N  120.8E   24      114.5     30/1600 - 01/1600
  Mount Alisan 46753  23.5N  120.8E 2406      555.5     01/1600 - 02/1600
        "        "      "       "      "      616.0     02/1600 - 03/1600
  Dongshi      46730  23.3N  119.7E   45      405.0     01/1600 - 02/1600
  Taichung     46753  24.2N  120.7E   78      308.5     02/1600 - 03/1600

  (3) Rainfall Observations from Taiwan - CWB Stations

  (a) For the Period:  29/1600 - 30/1600 UTC (only amounts >= 100 mm)

  CWB Station ID        County          Rainfall
      C0R36             Pingtung        122.0 mm
      C1T95             Hualien         117.0 mm
      C1T97                "            113.0 mm
      C1T99                "            105.5 mm
      C0R42             Pingtung        103.5 mm

  (b) For the Period:  30/1600 - 01/1600 UTC (only amounts >= 200 mm)

  CWB Station ID        County          Rainfall
      C0Z06 *           Hualien         527.0 mm
      C1T99                "            299.0 mm
      C1T83                "            286.0 mm
      C1Z02                "            271.5 mm
      C1T94                "            262.0 mm
      C1T88                "            262.0 mm
      C0S83             Taitung         256.5 mm
      C1T98             Hualien         250.0 mm
      C1T90                "            243.0 mm
      C0T82                "            242.5 mm
      C1T97                "            237.5 mm
      C1T93                "            236.5 mm
      C0T9A                "            234.5 mm
      C1T86                "            234.5 mm
      C0T87                "            233.5 mm
      C0S74             Taitung         228.5 mm
      C1Z03             Hualien         228.0 mm
      C0T9F                "            226.0 mm
      C1T95                "            222.0 mm
      C1Z01                "            221.0 mm
      C1T81                "            221.0 mm
      C0Z05                "            217.5 mm
      C0T96                "            215.0 mm
      C1T89                "            208.5 mm
      C0T9E                "            208.0 mm
      C0T9G                "            206.0 mm
      C0S81             Taitung         205.5 mm
      C1Z04             Hualien         202.0 mm
      A0T78                "            201.5 mm
      C1T92                "            201.0 mm

  * - C0Z06 = Station Yuli

  (c) For the Period:  01/1600 - 02/1600 UTC (only amounts >= 400 mm)

  CWB Station ID        County          Rainfall
      C0R10 *           Pingtung        730.5 mm
      C1V30             Kaohsiung       666.5 mm
      C1V24                 "           583.5 mm
      C1R14             Pingtung        580.0 mm
      C1V19             Kaohsiung       577.5 mm
      C1R12             Pingtung        544.5 mm
      C1V27             Kaohsiung       528.0 mm
      C1M61             Chia-I          527.0 mm
      C1V22             Kaohsiung       518.5 mm
      C0M53             Chia-I          504.0 mm
      C1M39                "            503.5 mm
      C0M41                "            502.0 mm
      C1F88             Nantou          480.0 mm
      C1V23             Kaohsiung       466.5 mm
      C0O81             Tainan          459.6 mm
      C1F94             Taichung        454.5 mm
      C1M60             Chia-I          438.5 mm
      C1M54                "            436.5 mm
      C1V34             Kaohsiung       432.5 mm
      C0X02             Tainan          429.5 mm
      C1M44             Chia-I          428.0 mm
      C1O87             Tainan          425.0 mm
      C1V21             Kaohsiung       409.0 mm
      C1V20                 "           403.5 mm
      C1R13             Pingtung        401.5 mm
      C0R15                 "           400.0 mm

  * - C0R10 = Station Mount Weiliaosan

  (d) For the Period:  02/1600 - 03/1600 UTC (only amounts >= 400 mm)

  CWB Station ID        County          Rainfall
      C1V19             Kaohsiung       670.0 mm
      C1F88             Nantou          647.0 mm
      C1V22             Kaohsiung       636.5 mm
      C1V30                 "           616.5 mm
      C1V27                 "           605.0 mm
      C1F89             Taichung        603.5 mm
      C1F94                 "           569.5 mm
      C1H85             Nantou          554.5 mm
      C0F95                "            540.5 mm
      C1V46             Kaohsiung       538.0 mm
      C1F87             Taichung        516.0 mm
      C1V20             Kaohsiung       508.5 mm
      C0H9A             Nantou          501.5 mm
      C1V24             Kaohsiung       460.0 mm
      C0R10             Pingtung        454.0 mm
      C1F9D             Taichung        440.0 mm
      C1V29             Kaohsiung       440.0 mm
      C0M53             Chia-I          437.5 mm
      C1F9H             Taichung        432.0 mm
      C1R14             Pingtung        429.5 mm
      C1M63             Chia-I          424.0 mm
      C1M62                "            423.0 mm
      C1H86             Nantou          417.0 mm
      C1F9E             Taichung        415.0 mm
      C1F91                 "           413.5 mm

  (4) Rainfall Observations from the Chinese Mainland

  (only amounts greater than 50 mm are listed)

  All the following are for the period:  02/0000 - 03/0000 UTC.

  Station         Province  WMO ID   Lat     Lon   Alt (m)  Rain (mm)
  Ruian           Zhejiang   -----  27.8N  120.7E    38       68.9
  Pingtan *       Fujian     58944  25.5N  119.8E    31       56.0
  Dachen Dao      Zhejiang   58666  28.5N  121.9E    84       51.1
  Fuding          Fujian     58754  27.3N  120.2E    38       50.0
  Yuhuan          Zhejiang   -----  -----  ------    --       78.0
  Dongtou         Zhejiang   -----  -----  ------    --       57.0

  * - Pingtan is one of the counties of Fuzhou.

  (5) Wind Observations

     Station Yonagunijima, Okinawa Prefecture, WMO 47912, 24.5N/123.0E,
  Alt 30 m, recorded a peak gust of S 63 kts (time unknown).  A gust of
  SE 62 kts was recorded at 01/1430 UTC.

     Station Ishigakijima, Okinawa Prefecture, WMO 47918, 24.3N/124.2E,
  Alt 6 m, recorded a peak gust of S 54 kts (time unknown).  Gusts of
  S 52 kts and SE 46 kts were recorded at 02/0540 and 01/1704 UTC,

  E. Phil Smith's Encounter with Mindulle

     The following account was sent by Phil Smith, a transplanted Aussie
  living in Hong Kong.  A special thanks to Phil for sharing his personal
  "reconnaissance" of Typhoon Mindulle.

     "This afternoon I took off from Taipei right in the midst of
  Mindulle's closest approach.  Even while pushing back from the gate, the
  plane was rocking everywhere and violent squalls of rain were belting the
  portside windows of the plane so hard you expected the windows to come
  in.  Taxiing out to the runway, the plane also was being shaken violently
  by the powerful gusts of winds.     The take-off run seemed relatively
  smooth, but as soon as we began to climb we all enjoyed a Disneyland 
  roller coaster ride with the plane sometimes plummeting earthwards, 
  sometimes suddenly rocketing heavenwards, and generally copping quite a
  buffeting.   Suddenly, a short distance into the climb, the sun shone
  brightly, the sky was bright, clear, blue, and the ride became very
  smooth, except for what felt like one colossal downdraft.

    "The captain came on the public address system and ordered all cabin
  crew and passengers to remain seated and with belts fastened and ordered
  that there was no time to even go to the toilet.  He said, 'We are now
  passing through the eye of the typhoon and there will be a great deal
  more strong turbulence in just a few more seconds.'  Seconds later we 
  plunged again into deep dark grey cloud and enjoyed another roller
  coaster ride as before.  We soon rose above the lower mass of clouds,
  although there were still higher clouds far above us with a few breaks
  of blue sky.  We were right up to cruising altitude before the 'Fasten
  Seat Belts' sign was cancelled and the crew were allowed to begin their
  in-flight service.

    "Technically, at the time we flew through the eye, the storm had been
  downgraded to a tropical storm, and a short distance below the plane the
  eye was filled with clouds.  However, I still unexpectedly enjoyed the
  dream of a lifetime:  seeing the eye of a storm from the air, from the
  inside, with my own eyes.  What a thrill it was!  I have experienced two
  previous eye-passages with my feet planted firmly on the ground, but to
  be flying through the middle and seeing the majesty of the encircling
  clouds towering above the plane and glistening in the unbelievably bright
  sunlight was a truly unforgettable experience."

  F. Damage and Casualties

     News reports indicate that Mindulle/Igme was responsible for 31 deaths
  in the Philippines and for $9.8 million worth of damage to crops and 
  infrastructure in the Cagayan Valley region.   Eleven persons were still
  missing at the time of this writing.  The NDCC indicated that a total of
  113,004 families, or 577,471 persons, had been displaced by the typhoon.
  Total damage to crops and infrastructure was estimated at P1.1 billion.
  Agricultural crops worth P654.2 million were destroyed while damage to
  infrastructure was placed at P444.8 million.
     In Taiwan, torrential rains associated with Typhoon Mindulle caused 
  floods and mudslides which claimed the lives of at least 25 people. 
  Twelve persons were reported missing and damages were equivalent to 
  about 400 million US dollars.  Flooding knocked out electricity to as 
  many as 213,000 homes.  An official at the Taiwan Power Company estimated
  damage and lost revenue at about T$10 billion (US$297 million).  The 
  island's main hydroelectric power project was hardest hit, with two 
  plants along the Tachiah River buried by mudslides and two others forced 
  to shut down after rivers rose.   To add insult to injury, Taiwan was
  rocked by an earthquake measuring 5.8 on the Richter scale just a few
  days after the passage of Mindulle while the island was coping with the
  aftermath of the flooding.

     Additional articles of interest can be found at the following URL:>

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang.)

                            TYPHOON TINGTING
                           (TC-11W / TY 0408)
                            25 June - 6 July

  Tingting: contributed by Hong Kong, is a fairly common pet name for
            young girls

  A. Storm Origins

     Typhoon Tingting was the culmination of a very active June in the
  Northwest Pacific basin with five typhoons forming during the month.
  An area of convection formed and persisted about 600 nm east-southeast
  of Guam on 24 June.  Animated multi-spectral imagery revealed a weak
  LLCC beneath an area of persistent convection, and an upper-level
  analysis revealed moderate vertical shear and weak diffluence.  By
  0000 UTC on 25 June the disturbance had moved westward to a position
  about 515 nm east-southeast of Guam.  Satellite imagery indicated that
  deep convection was consolidating around the LLCC, and an upper-level
  analysis showed decreased vertical shear and favorable diffluence.
  A TCFA was issued for the system at this time by JTWC.  At 0600 UTC
  JMA began classifying the system as a 30-kt tropical depression in their
  High Seas bulletins.

  B. Synoptic History

     The first JTWC warning on Tropical Depression 11W was issued at 1200
  UTC on 25 June.  The center was located about 450 nm east-southeast of
  Guam, moving westward at 5 kts, and the MSW was estimated at 30 kts.
  TD-11W was forecast to track northwestward along the western periphery
  of a mid-level ridge to the northeast.   At 26/0000 UTC the system was
  located almost 400 nm east-southeast of Guam--at this juncture JMA
  upgraded the depression to tropical storm status and assigned the name
  Tingting.   Six hours later JTWC upgraded Tingting to a tropical storm.
  By 1200 UTC Tingting was tracking slowly northwestward as forecast, and
  by 1800 UTC had reached a position about 300 nm east of Guam.  Tingting
  slowly intensified on the 27th as it neared the Mariana Islands.   At
  1200 UTC the center was located approximately 115 nm east-southeast of
  Saipan with the MSW estimated at 55 kts.  A 27/1123 UTC SSM/I pass in
  the 37-GHz band suggested that a ragged eye was beginning to form.
  Tingting's northwesterly motion was forecast to continue as the system
  tracked along the southwest quadrant of the steering ridge to the north.
  This ridge was moving to the east and was expected to build in the
  equatorward direction to the east of the tropical cyclone, thereby
  causing Tingting to begin moving more poleward.

     At 0000 UTC on 28 June satellite CI estimates ranged from 55-77 kts.
  Since an eye appeared to be forming, JTWC upgraded Tingting to a 65-kt
  minimal typhoon.    Six hours later the MSW had increased to 75 kts
  as Tingting's center was passing through the central Marianas about
  95 nm north of Saipan, or near the tiny island of Sarigan.   The storm's
  organization improved through the day, and at 1800 UTC the MSW had
  reached 80 kts.  (JMA upgraded Tingting to a typhoon at this time.)
  The 80-kt intensity represents Tingting's peak per JTWC analysis, and
  was maintained for 18 hours.   Early on the 29th the typhoon made a
  little bit of a west-northwestward jog, but by 1800 UTC the anticipated
  northward turn had occurred with Tingting moving north at 13 kts from
  a position approximately 160 nm south-southeast of Iwo Jima.  At its
  peak intensity gales covered an area over 300 nm in diameter with the
  radius of typhoon-force winds estimated at 40-45 nm.  The last day of
  June saw Typhoon Tingting continue its journey northward, passing only
  about 50 nm east of Iwo Jima during the day.  By 30/1800 UTC the center
  of the cyclone was located about 175 nm north-northeast of the island.
  JTWC brought the intensity down during the 30th to 65 kts by 1800 UTC,
  but surprisingly JMA's peak 10-min avg MSW of 85 kts occurred at 1200
  UTC.  (More discussion on this below.)

     Tingting continued to weaken on 1 July as cooler, drier air was
  entrained into the system from the northwest.  JTWC downgraded the system
  to a 55-kt tropical storm at 1200 UTC, but JMA maintained Tingting as
  a typhoon for another 24 hours.  (Intensity estimates from at least one
  satellite fix agency remained at 65 kts through 02/0600 UTC.)  At 01/1800
  UTC the storm was located approximately 410 nm southeast of Tokyo and
  moving east-northeastward at 12 kts.  On 2 July Tropical Storm Tingting
  continued to move slowly northeastward, reaching a point about 430 nm
  east-southeast of Tokyo by 1800 UTC.  By this time JMA had downgraded
  the system to tropical storm status.  The storm's forward motion
  accelerated significantly on the 3rd as it got caught up in mid-latitude
  westerlies.  By 03/1800 UTC Tingting was located about 770 nm east of
  Tokyo and speeding east-northeastward at 19 kts.  More cold, dry air
  had become entrained into the system and convection had significantly
  decreased.  The 1800 UTC warning was the final one from JTWC and
  declared Tingting to be an extratropical LOW with 45-kt winds.  JMA
  issued tropical cyclone warnings for one more cycle, then declared
  Tingting extratropical at 04/0600 UTC.   The remnants of Tingting
  continued northeastward, gradually slowing and turning north.  The final
  reference to the system in JMA's High Seas bulletins was at 1800 UTC on
  6 July and placed the weakening 35-kt gale just southeast of the
  Kamchatka Peninsula.

  C. Meteorological Observations

     Typhoon Tingting brought prodigious amounts of rainfall to Guam as
  the center passed through the Mariana Islands to the north.  Following
  is part of an e-mail from Mark Lander which describes in vivid detail
  the conditions on Guam (e-mail dated 27 June 2004):

     "We sure are in the thick of this one.  My rain gauges just topped
  11 inches (280 mm), with most of it falling in the past 8 hours.  Winds
  are WNW 30 kts with gusts 40-45 kts.  The sea is boiling with white
  caps, and is thick with red mud plumes extending far offshore in many
  places.  There is a possibility for another 10 inches of rain in the
  next 24-36 hours, giving us a storm total of over 20 inches (over
  500 mm)!  Even before this tropical storm, we were at about 16 inches
  of rain for the month which was the wettest June in 47 years of record

     "All of this rain has come from outer rainbands, and not from the TC
  core which is just now coming into NEXRAD range at 240 nm.  Tingting is
  expected to pass near Saipan tomorrow morning (about 12 hours from now),
  and therefore the CPA will be about 170 nm to the NE of Guam.  More rain
  is now beginning to pound against my door.    Driving today has been
  amazing!  The roads are covered in "lakes", and assorted rivers and
  "waterfalls" exist everywhere.  Fortunately, much of Guam is limestone
  (island Karst), and most of the water rapidly infiltrates.  Only in the
  south are there exposed volcanics with surface streams (some really great
  waterfalls under normal circumstances--I'd love to see those streams

     In a more recent e-mail Mark stated that some stations in Guam
  received more than 600 mm in a 24-hour period, and that peak wind gusts
  on the island were around 50 kts.

     Huang Chunliang sent one rainfall observation from Guam.  The NWSO
  at Agana (WMO 91212, 13.5N/144.8E, Alt 75 m) recorded a 24-hour total of
  145.3 mm from 27/1200 to 28/1200 UTC.   Chunliang also sent a wind gust
  observation from Chichijima (WMO 47971, 27.1N/142.2E, Alt 3 m).  The
  station recorded a peak gust of 79 kts at 30/1030 UTC.

     (Thanks to Chunliang for the tidbits of data and to Mark for sharing
  his account of conditions on Guam.)

  NOTE: More observations are included in Section E below.

  D. Damage and Casualties

     The author has received no reports of damage or casualties resulting
  from Typhoon Tingting.

  E. Further Discussion

     JTWC's peak estimated 1-min avg MSW for Tingting was 80 kts, from
  1800 UTC on 28 June through 1200 UTC on the 29th.  During the time of
  JTWC's peak intensity, JMA's estimated 10-min avg MSW was in the 65-70 kt
  range.  By 1200 UTC on 30 June, JTWC's intensity had decreased to 70 kts
  while JMA's MSW had increased to 85 kts, or roughly equivalent to a 1-min
  avg MSW of 95 kts.  As students of Northwest Pacific tropical cyclones
  know, for systems of typhoon intensity or greater it is very unusual for
  JMA's MSW to exceed JTWC's estimated intensity, especially by as much as
  25 kts (when converted to equivalent 1-min avg values).

     I asked Dr. Karl Hoarau of Cergy-Pontoise University near Paris to
  perform an analysis of Tingting's intensity during this period.  His
  reply follows (slightly edited):

     "First, I'll give you some data recorded by the stations.  On 28 June
  at 1600 UTC, Pagan recorded a gust of 113 kts.  This normally matches
  with a MSW over 1 minute of 92 kts.  At that time, the hourly AODT
  developed by CIMSS gave 102 kts (5.5) while JTWC had the MSW at 80 kts
  at 1800 UTC.     On 30 June at 0300 UTC, Iwo Jima recorded a SLP of
  969 hPa with a MSW of 48 kts over 10 minutes (54 kts over 1 minute) and
  a gust of 68 kts when TY Tingting was 54 nm east of the island.  This was
  the basis for JMA to give an intensity of 950 hPa/80 kts (90 kts over
  1 minute or T5.0).    At 30/0000 UTC, the MSLP was at 979 hPa on the 
  island.  At that time, JMA still gave an intensity of 965 hPa/70 kts 
  (80 kts over 1 minute or T4.5+).

     "The question is--was TY Tingting intensifying during that time?
  The response is definitely not.  The AODT was 4.5 and manual Dvorak
  T-numbers that I computed were at 4.5 too from 29 June at 1800 UTC
  until 30 June at 1013 UTC when they decreased to 4.0!  But obviously,
  the Current Intensity (CI) was above the T-numbers since the intensity
  was decreasing.

     "At 30/1030 UTC Chichijima recorded a SLP of 971 hPa and a maximum
  gust of 79 kts, which matches with a MSW of 65 kts.     These winds were
  recorded in the north-northwest part of the eyewall, which had breaks in
  the convection.  In the eastern eyewall where the convection was more
  active, the winds were probably stronger.  At 1500 UTC, Chichijima
  recorded a SLP of 959.4 hPa with light winds (12 kts) and 0.5 mm of rain
  in one hour when the center of the big eye of Tingting was located 20 nm
  east of the island.    At 0600 UTC JMA still upped the intensity to
  950 hPa/80 kts (90 kts over 1 minute), and at 1200 UTC further increased
  the intensity to 945 hPa/85 kts (95 kts over 1 minute), which means T5.5
  in their Dvorak classification.  From 1200 to 1500 UTC the intensity of
  Tingting was decreasing from 4.0 to 3.5, and at 1500 UTC the eye temp-
  erature was around +4 C, and the closed ring of convection was "Off
  White" (+9 C to -30 C).  From 1200 to 1500 UTC, CIMSS gave a current
  intensity of 75 kts.

     "In summary, it is possible that TY Tingting reached a peak intensity
  of 90-100 kts on 28 June around 1800 UTC.     And then it gradually
  weakened.  But the CI-numbers are stronger than the T-numbers in the
  Dvorak technique.  On the 30th at 1200 UTC I do agree with CIMSS for a
  CI of 75-80 kts.  As TY Tingting had a rather big low-level circulation,
  it is possible that the SLP was lower than the normal pressure (Atkinson
  and Holliday) for a given MSW.

     "The intensification given by JMA on 30 June was based on the SLP
  recorded in the two stations I mentioned, but not on the satellite
  pictures.  Moreover, at 1500 UTC, I think that the minimum SLP in the
  eye of the typhoon was not much lower than the 959.4 hPa recorded at

     (A special thanks to Karl sending his analysis of Typhoon Tingting.)

  (Report written by Gary Padgett with significant contributions by Mark
  Lander and Karl Hoarau.)


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for June:  2 tropical depressions **
  ** - Not classified as depressions by JTWC

                North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for June

     No systems were classified as tropical depressions or storms in the
  Bay of Bengal or Arabian Sea by JTWC during June, but two systems were
  treated as deep depressions (MSW >= 30 kts) by the Indian Meteorological
  Department.  The temporary NRL invest numbers for these systems were
  91A and 92B.   Depression 91A occurred in the eastern Arabian Sea during
  the second week of June, and JTWC did issue two TCFAs for this system
  on the 11th and 12th, but the formation alert was cancelled on the 13th
  as the system weakened.  One very knowledgeable and experienced meteor-
  ologist (who normally wishes to remain anonymous) opined that the Arabian
  Sea system likely had winds to 50 kts at one point.

     The Bay of Bengal system, Depression 92B, made landfall on 13 June
  approximately 240 nm southwest of Calcutta.  This system remained fairly
  well-organized as an overland depression for nearly 48 hours following
  landfall.   In one of their general tropical weather summaries for the
  Southeast Asia region, NMCC referred to this system as a tropical storm.

     Huang Chunliang has sent me a listing of some rainfall observations
  made in association with this depression.  These are listed below:

  Station        State                    Rain (cm)  Date/Time (UTC)
  Bhagamandala   KARNATAKA                  12 cm    [11/03-12/03Z]
  Port Blair     ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS  11 cm    [11/03-12/03Z]
  Kottigehara    KARNATAKA                  11 cm    [11/03-12/03Z]
  Valparai       TAMIL NADU & PONDICHERRY   10 cm    [11/03-12/03Z]
  Valparai       TAMIL NADU & PONDICHERRY   19 cm    [12/03-13/03Z]
  Digha          WEST BENGAL                16 cm    [12/03-13/03Z]
  Paderu         ANDHRA PRADESH             16 cm    [12/03-13/03Z]
  Tekkali        ANDHRA PRADESH             13 cm    [12/03-13/03Z]
  Kalingapatnam  ANDHRA PRADESH             11 cm    [12/03-13/03Z]
  Titlagarh      ORISSA                     31 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Balimundali    ORISSA                     18 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Valparai       TAMIL NADU & PONDICHERRY   17 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Kalaikunda     WEST BENGAL                13 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Jagdalpur      CHHATTISGARH               12 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Bhagamandla    KARNATAKA                  11 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Medikeri       KARNATAKA                  10 cm    [13/03-14/03Z]
  Durg           CHHATTISGARH               34 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Dongargarh     CHHATTISGARH               18 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Raipur         CHHATTISGARH               16 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Mana           CHHATTISGARH               16 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Bemetara       CHHATTISGARH               15 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Dongargaon     CHHATTISGARH               14 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Gandai         CHHATTISGARH               14 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Saraipalli     CHHATTISGARH               12 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Rajnandgaon    CHHATTISGARH               11 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Messanjore     JHARKHAND                  10 cm    [14/03-15/03Z]
  Maither        MADHYA PRADESH             22 cm    [15/03-16/03Z]
  Satna          MADHYA PRADESH             12 cm    [15/03-16/03Z]
  Nagodre        MADHYA PRADESH             10 cm    [15/03-16/03Z]
  Langi          MADHYA PRADESH             10 cm    [15/03-16/03Z]
  Pendra         CHHATTISGARH               13 cm    [15/03-16/03Z]
  Gorakhpur      UTTAR PRADESH              13 cm    [16/03-17/03Z]
  Bansi          UTTAR PRADESH              12 cm    [16/03-17/03Z]
  Birdghat       UTTAR PRADESH              11 cm    [16/03-17/03Z]
  Kakrahi        UTTAR PRADESH              11 cm    [16/03-17/03Z]
  Turtipar       UTTAR PRADESH              10 cm    [16/03-17/03Z]
  Khajuraho      MADHYA PRADESH             13 cm    [16/03-17/03Z]
  Dehradun       UTTARANCHAL                12 cm    [17/03-18/03Z]

  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones



  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones



  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones


                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the July, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, and
  Chris Landsea):>>>

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the complete Annual Tropical 
  Cyclone Report (ATCR) for 2002 (2001-2002 season for the Southern 
  Hemisphere).  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.  The report
  for the 2002-2003 Southern Hemisphere season has also recently been

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2003 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, storm reports for all the 2003 Atlantic
  and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as well as
  track charts and reports on storms from earlier years.

     The URL is:>

     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  Kevin Boyle  (Eastern Atlantic, Western Northwest Pacific, South
                China Sea)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Huang Chunliang  (Assistance with Western Northwest Pacific, South
                    China Sea)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)
  E-mail:  [email protected]


Document: summ0406.htm
Updated: 26th October 2006

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