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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October 2005
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]


                               OCTOBER, 2005

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                             OCTOBER HIGHLIGHTS

   --> Extremely active Atlantic with six storms--four hurricanes
   --> Record low Atlantic barometric pressure recorded
   --> Devastating hurricane strikes Yucatan Peninsula and southern Florida
   --> Hundreds of deaths in Mexico and Central America from tropical
       cyclone-induced and monsoon rains
   --> Western North Pacific quieter--two typhoons and neither destructive


                    ********** EXTRA FEATURE **********

                        2006 TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES


     Beginning in 2000 tropical storms and typhoons forming in the North
  Pacific west of the Dateline are assigned names by JMA taken from a
  new list of Asian names contributed by fourteen nations and territories
  from the western Pacific and eastern Asia.   Names are not allocated
  in alphabetical order and the majority are not personal names--instead
  names of animals, plants, fictional characters, descriptive adjectives,
  places--even foods--are utilized.     The entire list consists of 140
  names and all names will be used before any are repeated.    The last
  name assigned in 2005 was Bolaven in November.   As of 11 March no
  tropical cyclones have been named in 2006.

     The next 36 names on the list are (** indicates name has already
  been assigned in 2006):

       Chanchu           Wukong            Chebi             Pabuk
       Jelawat           Sonamu            Durian            Wutip
       Ewiniar           Shanshan          Utor              Sepat
       Bilis             Yagi              Trami             Fitow
       Kaemi             Xangsane          Kong-rey          Danas
       Prapiroon         Bebinca           Yutu              Nari
       Maria             Rumbia            Toraji            Wipha
       Saomai            Soulik            Man-yi            Francisco
       Bopha             Cimaron           Usagi             Lekima

     Since 1963 PAGASA has independently named tropical cyclones forming
  in the Philippines' AOR--from 115E to 135E and from 5N to 25N (except
  for a portion of the northwestern corner of the above region).  Even
  though the Philippines contributed ten names to the international list
  of typhoon names, PAGASA still continues to assign their own names for
  local use within the Philippines.  It is felt that familiar names are
  more easily remembered in the rural areas and that having a PAGASA-
  assigned name helps to underscore the fact that the cyclone is within
  PAGASA's AOR and potentially a threat to the Philippines.    Another
  consideration may be PAGASA's desire to assign a name when a system is
  first classified as a tropical depression.    Since tropical and/or
  monsoon depressions can bring very heavy rainfall to the nation which
  often results in disastrous flooding, the weather service feels that
  assigning a name helps to enhance public attention given to a system.

     Beginning with 2001 PAGASA began using new sets of cyclone names.  
  These do not all end in "ng" as did the older names.  Four sets of 25
  names will be rotated annually; thus, the set for 2006 will be re-used
  in 2010.   In case more than 25 systems are named in one season, an
  auxiliary set will be used.   PAGASA names for 2006 are (** indicates 
  name has already been assigned in 2006):

           Agaton **           Juan                Reming
           Basyang **          Katring             Seniang
           Caloy               Luis                Tomas
           Domeng              Milenyo             Usman
           Ester               Neneng              Venus
           Florita             Ompong              Waldo
           Gloria              Paeng               Yayang
           Henry               Queenie             Zeny

     In the unlikely event that the list is exhausted, the following
  names would be allocated as needed:  Agila, Bagwis, Chito, Diego,
  Elena, Felino, Gunding, Harriet, Indang and Jessa.


     After several years of planning and working out implementation
  details, the RSMC for the North Indian Ocean basin--the Indian
  Meteorological Department--began naming tropical cyclones in that
  region on an experimental basis in the autumn of 2004.

     The procedure for allocating names is similar to that used in the
  Northwest Pacific basin.  All the member nations--eight in this case--
  submitted eight names each.    The 64 names were arranged in eight
  columns of eight names, ordered by the contributing nations in alpha-
  betical order, just as is done in the Northwest Pacific.  Potential
  cyclonic storms for 2006 include (** indicates name has already been

           Mala                  Gonu                  Abe
           Mukda                 Yemyin                Khai Muk
           Ogni                  Sidr                  Nisha
           Akash                 Nargis                Bijli

                           ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for October:  1 tropical depression
                         1 subtropical depression
                         2 tropical storms
                         2 hurricanes
                         2 intense hurricanes

                        Sources of Information

     Most of the information presented below was obtained from the
  various tropical cyclone products issued by the Tropical Prediction
  Center/National Hurricane Center (TPC/NHC) in Miami, Florida:
  discussions, public advisories, forecast/advisories, tropical weather
  outlooks, special tropical disturbance statements, etc.    Some
  additional information may have been gleaned from the monthly
  summaries prepared by the hurricane specialists and available on
  TPC/NHC's website.     All references to sustained winds imply a
  1-minute averaging period unless otherwise noted.

  SPECIAL NOTE!!!  Many of the official TPC/NHC tropical cyclone reports
                   are now available online at the following link:


                   Atlantic Tropical Activity for October

     October, 2005, became the most active October on record in the
  Atlantic basin.  The six NS tied the previous record set in 1887 and
  again in 1950.  The NTC was a whopping 63% (based on 1950-2004), the
  average NTC for October being 16%.  Over the period 1950-2004, the 
  averages are:  1.7 NS, 1.1 H, 0.4 IH, 9.1 NSD, 4.3 NSD, 0.8 IHD.  The
  numbers for October, 2005, are:  6 NS, 4 H, 2 IH, 18.5 NSD, 9.75 HD,
  and 5 IHD.  With 17 named storms already having formed by the end of
  September, the six NS of October carried the count of Atlantic storms
  to 23--two more than the previous record season of 1933.  Also, by
  month's end 13 storms had reached hurricane intensity, exceeding 1969's
  previous record of 12 hurricanes.

     Hurricane Wilma dominated the tropical scene, producing the most
  explosive, rapid intensification episode ever seen in the annals of
  Atlantic hurricane history.  The central pressure fell 97 mb in 24 hours
  to a record basin low of 882 mb.  The hurricane devastated the north-
  eastern portions of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and also delivered a
  rather destructive blow to South Florida.  This amazing hurricane also
  produced the smallest eye known to TPC hurricane forecasters (2 nm), and
  set a new world record for 24-hour rainfall accumulation over non-
  mountainous terrain when Mexico's Isla Mujeres recorded more than
  62 inches (1575 mm) in a 24-hour period.

     Early in the month Tropical Storm Stan formed just off the eastern
  coast of the Yucatan Peninsula and crossed the peninsula into the Bay
  of Campeche where it became a minimal hurricane.  Stan brought heavy
  rainfall to portions of Mexico, resulting in at least 80 deaths.  Very
  heavy monsoon rains further east in Mexico and in Central America were
  blamed for between 1000 and 2000 fatalities, and these deaths at the
  time were attributed to Stan by the press.   Late in the month Hurricane
  Beta formed deep in the southwestern Caribbean Sea, moved northward, then
  made a left hook toward Central America, eventually striking Nicaragua as
  a Category 2 hurricane.

     During the first week of October, Tropical Storm Tammy formed just off
  the Florida East Coast and moved north-northwestward and inland in
  extreme northeastern Florida.  Hurricane Vince formed northwest of the
  Madeira Islands, becoming the most northeasterly-forming Atlantic
  tropical cyclone on record.   Vince later made landfall on the Iberian
  Peninsula shortly after weakening to tropical depression status.   The
  other October storm, Tropical Storm Alpha, formed in the central
  Caribbean and struck the Dominican Republic's Barahona Peninsula.  Alpha
  was the first of six tropical storms to be named with Greek letter
  alphabet names, a procedure established more than a decade earlier as
  a contingency plan in case either the Atlantic's or Eastern North
  Pacific's regular list of names was exhausted and additional storms

     Reports on all the named cyclones follow.  Kevin Boyle journeyed out
  of his normal Northwest Pacific haunts to write the reports on Tammy,
  Vince and Beta.  A special thanks to Kevin for his assistance.

     In addition to the six named storms, there were two non-developing
  depressions during the month, one tropical in character while the other
  was classified as a subtropical depression.  Tropical Depression 19
  formed late on 30 September several hundred miles west of the Cape Verde
  Islands.  The system tracked generally north-northwestward over the next
  couple of days, encountering strong southwesterly shear which rendered it
  unable to strengthen into a tropical storm.  A very brief report on this
  system, written by Lixion Avila, is available on TPC/NHC's website.  A
  graphic depicting the track of Tropical Depression 19 may be found at the
  following link:>

     Subtropical Depression 22 formed on 8 October about 535 nm southeast
  of Bermuda in a surface trough located on the northeastern side of an
  upper-level LOW.  Due to the association of the surface and upper-level
  LOWs, combined with the influence of the cold air of the upper-level
  system, the depression was classified as subtropical rather than
  tropical.  The depression turned westward on the 9th as deep convection
  began to diminish due to strong easterly shear.  The depression was
  downgraded to a remnant LOW, but the residual system moved on toward the
  U. S. East Coast, merging with a cold front on 11 October east of Cape
  Hatteras.  The LOW then intensified as an extratropical system, causing
  gale-force winds over the western Atlantic from 12-14 October.  A short
  report on this system, authored by Jack Beven, is available on TPC/NHC's
  website.  A graphic depicting the track of Subtropical Depression 22 may
  be found at the following link:>

                              HURRICANE STAN
                               1 - 5 October

  A. Synoptic History

     October's first tropical storm formed from a tropical wave which left
  the African coast after the middle of September.  The first mention of
  this wave in TPC/NHC's Tropical Weather Outlooks was on the morning of
  25 September at 0930 UTC when the wave was producing showers and thunder-
  storms over the southeastern Caribbean Sea.  This wave moved across the
  Caribbean during the ensuing week, gradually increasing in organization
  as environmental conditions slowly became more conducive for tropical
  cyclone development.  A Special Tropical Disturbance Statement was issued
  at 1910 UTC on the 29th after a U. S. Air Force Reserve reconnaissance
  aircraft had investigated the system.  At that time, a tropical
  depression had not formed--the plane found a large area of light and
  variable winds with a minimum pressure of 1009 mb at a point about
  150 nm southwest of Grand Cayman Island.  However, there was no deep
  convection located near the area of lowest pressure.

     By the morning of 1 October the disturbance had become better defined
  and advisories were initiated on Tropical Depression 20 at 1500 UTC.
  The broad center of the depression was located about 95 nm southeast of
  Cozumel, Mexico, moving west-northwestward at 5 kts.  The initial MSW
  was estimated at 25 kts, but this was increased to 30 kts in an
  intermediate advisory issued 1800 UTC as the system continued to become
  better organized.  The depression continued slowly to approach the
  Yucatan Peninsula and attained tropical storm status just before making
  landfall early in the morning of 2 October.  A Tropical Cyclone Update
  was issued at 02/0635 UTC upgrading TD-20 to Tropical Storm Stan.  A
  reconnaissance plane had found an 850-mb FLW of 50 kts within a band of
  very deep convection to the southeast of the broad LLCC.  By the time
  of the 02/0900 UTC advisory, the 40-kt tropical storm was making landfall
  about 35 nm south of Tulum, Mexico, and about 65 nm south-southwest of

  NOTE: While so many of the tropical storms of the 2005 season represented
  the earliest occurrence of their particular ordinal number, Stan was not
  the earliest 18th "named" storm on record.  That distinction belongs to
  the 18th storm of 1933, which reached tropical storm status on 1 October,
  one day earlier than Stan.

     Stan continued moving west-northwestward across the Yucatan Peninsula
  and maintained tropical storm status due to the presence of tropical
  storm-force winds in bands offshore.  The cyclone was downgraded to
  tropical depression status at 03/0300 UTC while located about 85 km
  southwest of Progresso, Mexico, but this was only for a 6-hour period.
  Around 03/0000 UTC Stan was centered roughly 50 km due south of Merida
  and its track at this time bent to the west, a motion which brought the
  center back into the Gulf of Mexico off the northwestern Yucatan coast
  around 0430 UTC.   Based on an 850-mb FLW of 43 kts and a CP of 1002 mb,
  Stan was re-upgraded to a tropical storm at 0900 UTC.  After emerging
  into the Gulf, Stan's track became increasingly west-southwesterly due
  to a mid-level ridge to the north.  By 2100 UTC the MSW had increased
  to 50 kts based on dropsonde reports of surface winds of that magnitude.
  Winds were up to 60 kts by 04/0600 UTC with Stan then located about
  120 nm east of Veracruz and moving west-southwestward at 8 kts.

     Stan was upgraded to a hurricane at 04/0900 UTC with the CP having
  fallen to 979 mb and FLWs supporting 65 kts at the surface.  Hurricane
  Stan made landfall around 1500 UTC on 4 October about 75 nm east-
  southeast of Veracruz with the MSW estimated at 70 kts.  The system was
  downgraded to a tropical storm at 1800 UTC and further to tropical
  depression status at 05/0300 UTC.  Stan was by then well inland over
  Oaxaca State and weakening.  The circulation continued to become less
  defined and TPC/NHC issued the final advisory at 0900 UTC with peak
  winds estimated at 25 kts.  The accompanying discussion bulletin stressed
  that, while most of the core convection had dissipated, some thunderstorm
  activity persisted around the periphery of the circulation, and with the
  very slow movement of the system, very heavy rainfall was likely with
  life-threatening flash floods and mudslides likely.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Stan may be found at the
  following link:>

  B. Damage and Casualties

     The Mexican government reported that 80 deaths occurred in the states
  of Chiapas, Oaxaca and Veracruz due to flooding and landslides caused
  by the heavy rains of Stan.  However, at around the same time torrential
  rains fell in eastern Mexico and Central America in association with the
  western portion of a broad-scale low-level cyclonic circulation, leading
  to disastrous flooding in these areas.  Estimates of the number of
  fatalities related to this flooding range from 1000 to over 2000 with
  Guatemala alone experiencing more than 1000 deaths.  Given that the
  surface circulation of Stan was confined to the Mexican states in the
  area where landfall occurred, the TPC/NHC report places the direct death
  toll from Stan at 80.   However, many reports in the media attributed all
  the Central American rainfall-related fatalities to Hurricane Stan.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

                         TROPICAL STORM TAMMY
                             5 - 6 October

      Tropical Storm Tammy formed from a disturbance initially noted 
  roughly 750 nm east of the central Bahamas.  The storm's roots involved 
  a complex interaction between an upper-level LOW and a westward-moving 
  tropical wave which had left the African coast on 24 September.  The
  disturbance was first mentioned in TPC/NHC's Tropical Weather Outlook
  at 2121 UTC 1 October.  The disturbance persisted for several days while
  drifting towards the west-northwest and passed through the Bahamas late
  on 3 October.  The system began to organize on 4 October and, after radar
  and surface data indicated the formation of a surface circulation, the
  disturbance was upgraded to Tropical Storm Tammy in a special advisory
  issued by TPC/NHC at 05/1100 UTC.  The newly-christened tropical storm
  was centred a little over 20 nm east of Cape Canaveral, Florida. 
  (Editor's Note: Due to the pressure gradient with a HIGH to the north,
  gale-force winds were already present over the area.  As soon as the 
  existence of a surface circulation was confirmed, it was by definition 
  a tropical storm.  Hence, Tammy skipped the tropical depression stage.)

     Tropical Storm Tammy tracked quickly north-northwestwards parallel to 
  the Florida East Coast on 5 October, embedded in the southerly flow 
  between a mid to upper-level LOW over the northeastern Gulf of Mexico 
  and a deep-layer ridge over the mid-Atlantic states.  Intensifying 
  further, the system reached its peak intensity of 45 kts at 2100 UTC
  5 October shortly before making landfall near Mayport, Florida, at
  around 05/2300 UTC.  The system continued inland over south-central
  Georgia and was downgraded to a tropical depression at 06/1500 UTC, the
  time of the final advisory issued by TPC/NHC.  The tropical cyclone was
  finally absorbed by a large extratropical LOW over the Florida Panhandle.

     Reconnaissance aircraft reported peak flight-level winds of 53 kts 
  about 150 nm northeast of the center at 2100 UTC 5 October.  At this 
  time, the crew made visual surface estimates of 50 to 55 kts in a few 
  spots.  Based on these observations, the forecaster on duty writing the 
  advisory at 05/2100 UTC suggested that the peak intensity of Tammy 
  could have been slightly higher than 45 kts.  

     Minor flooding from rainfall and a 2-4 ft storm surge were reported 
  in northeastern Florida and southern Georgia.   Scattered minor damage 
  was reported but the total was less than $25 million.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Tammy may be
  found at the following link:>

  Editor's Note:  Since the above report was written by Kevin Boyle, the
  official TPC/NHC storm report, authored by Stacy Stewart, has been
  made available online.  The official peak intensity for Tammy has been
  estimated at 45 kts.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)

                            HURRICANE VINCE
                             9 - 11 October

      Vince was a very small and short-lived hurricane which formed in an 
  unusual location in the far northeastern Atlantic a few hundred miles 
  northwest of the popular holiday resort of Madeira.  It was the first 
  tropical cyclone ever to be assigned a name beginning with the letter 
  'V' since NHC began the practice of naming storms in the Atlantic basin 
  in 1950.  Vince became a hurricane late on 9 October near 18.6W, the 
  farthest east a tropical cyclone has ever done so.   Also, Vince became 
  the first recorded tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Iberian 

     Hurricane Vince formed from a non-tropical LOW which drifted 
  southeastward across the Azores on 6 October before becoming slow-moving
  in the far northeastern Atlantic on 8 October.   The system was first 
  mentioned in NHC's Tropical Weather Outlook at 1516 UTC 8 October. 
  Remarks include: "Satellite imagery indicates that shower activity has 
  increased in association with a non-tropical low pressure system 
  located about midway between the Azores and the Canary Islands.  While 
  this system is over relatively cold sea surface will 
  be monitored for any additional signs of subtropical cyclone 
  development."  The LOW remained slow-moving until 9 October when a slow 
  northeastward crawl began.  The system steadily acquired tropical 
  characteristics and became a 45-kt tropical storm at 09/1500 UTC while 
  located over SSTs of approximately 23 to 24 Deg C.

     Continuing slowly northeastwards, Vince was upgraded to a 65-kt 
  hurricane at 2100 UTC 9 October while located a little over 130 nm 
  northwest of Madeira.  However, an approaching frontal trough and its 
  associated unfavourable wind shear environment ensured that Vince would 
  not be a hurricane for long, and by early 10 October the tropical 
  cyclone was already beginning to deteriorate markedly.  The eye soon 
  faded and the deep convection decreased significantly while becoming 
  displaced to the east of the centre.  Vince was downgraded to a 
  tropical storm at 10/1500 UTC after the LLCC had become completely 
  exposed.  Accelerating east-northeastwards, Vince maintained tropical 
  storm intensity while passing south of Faro, Portugal, early on 
  11 October.  It was downgraded to a tropical depression at 11/0900 UTC 
  while making landfall near Huelva in southern Spain.  Vince quickly 
  dissipated over southern Spain late on 11 October.  

     The remnants of Hurricane Vince brought much-needed rain to the 
  drought-ridden regions of southern Spain.  Streets were flooded in 
  Cordoba where 86 mm fell in just 12 hours, but overall there were few 
  really exceptional rainfall totals.  A number of locations in Spain 
  reported tropical storm-force wind gusts.  There were no reports of 
  damage or casualties.

     A graphic displaying the track of Hurricane Vince may be found at
  the following link:>

  Editor's Note:  The above report was written by Kevin Boyle before the
  official TPC/NHC storm report, written by James Franklin, had become
  available online.  According to the official report, the pre-Vince 
  LOW has now been classified as a subtropical storm from 08/0600 UTC.
  However, it was not carried as a subtropical storm operationally.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)

                            HURRICANE WILMA
                            15 - 26 October

  A. Introduction

     After having produced two near-Category 5 hurricanes in early July
  (Dennis and Emily), the warm waters of the western Caribbean Sea took
  a back seat to the Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas region through the
  middle part of the season.  However, according to climatology, this
  region is the favored area for major tropical cyclone development
  during the latter part of the season, and the western Caribbean certainly
  lived up to its reputation during October, 2005.   At the first of the
  month, Tropical Storm Stan formed just off the eastern Yucatan coast and
  later became a minimal hurricane in the Bay of Campeche.   And during
  the closing days of the month, major Hurricane Beta formed deep in the
  southwestern reaches of the Caribbean and took a westward turn toward
  Nicaragua.  However, it was in the middle of the month and in the middle
  of the western Caribbean that the real show took place.

     Developing with excruciating slowness in a monsoon trough-like
  situation, Hurricane Wilma deepened into not only the most intense
  hurricane of the incredible 2005 season, but managed to produce the
  lowest pressure ever recorded in an Atlantic hurricane.  This amazing
  hurricane set several records, which will be summarized in Section C
  following.   Following its show-stopping meteorological statistics
  performance, dangerous Wilma devastated the northeastern Yucatan
  Peninsula and later struck a destructive blow to South Florida.

     The excellent and informative official TPC/NHC report on "super"
  Hurricane Wilma is now available online at the link referenced in the
  introductory paragraph, and I highly recommend that readers access and
  read it.  This report was a collaborative effort by Richard Pasch, Eric
  Blake, Hugh Cobb and David Roberts, all of TPC.   Some of the information
  below was taken from this report, and since it is now available, I will
  not attempt a full report on Wilma.

     John Diebolt has produced three graphics of the track of Hurricane
  Wilma.  The graphic with the larger view depicting the entire track
  may be accessed at the following link:>

  A zoom-in showing the details of the erratic track in the western
  Caribbean may be found at:>

  Finally, a close-up depicting the track from the northeastern Yucatan
  Peninsula across South Florida (including Florida counties) may be
  accessed at:>

  B. Brief Synoptic History

     As mentioned above, around mid-October a very large, monsoon-like
  circulation with an associated broad area of disturbed weather formed
  over much of the Caribbean Sea.   A concentrated area of convection with
  surface low pressure formed near Jamaica around 14 October.  Development
  of this disturbed area was possibly aided by a couple of tropical waves
  moving through the Caribbean around that time.   The system had become
  sufficiently organized that advisories were initiated on Tropical
  Depression 24 at 2100 UTC.  The center was estimated to be located about
  75 nm southwest of Montego Bay, Jamaica.  Steering currents were weak
  and the depression moved slowly and erratically, primarily south-
  southwestward to southward, over the next 2 or 3 days.  Strengthening
  was very slow and TD-24 was not upgraded to tropical storm status until
  0900 UTC on 17 October when centered about 150 nm southeast of Grand
  Cayman.   Wilma thus became only the second 21st tropical storm to form
  in the Atlantic basin during a season, the only other known occurrence
  being on 15 November 1933.

     On the 18th Tropical Storm Wilma turned toward the west-northwest and
  was upgraded to the season's 12th hurricane while centered about 170 nm
  south-southeast of Grand Cayman.    This tied 1969's record number of
  twelve hurricanes tracked during a single season.   Wilma had developed
  into a tropical depression and tropical storm very slowly, and had
  required 24 additional hours to reach hurricane intensity (about
  average), but late on the 18th and early on 19 October, one of the most
  remarkable and explosive deepening episodes ever noted occurred.  In a
  span of 24 hours (18/1200 to 19/1200 UTC), Wilma intensified from a
  65-kt minimal hurricane to a 160-kt monster storm.  (More on the super
  rapid intensification episode in Section C.)  The highest FLW measured
  by a U. S. Air Force reconnaissance plane was 168 kts at 700 mb in the
  southeastern eyewall at 19/0619 UTC.  Using the standard eyewall
  reduction factor, this equates to 151 kts at the surface.  The highest
  MSW assigned operationally for Wilma was 150 kts, but in post-analysis
  this was bumped up to 160 kts due to the fact that the pressure was
  still falling some when the plane departed the storm, and during the
  10-hour gap with no reconnaissance, the satellite signature suggested
  that Wilma maintained intensity for several hours.  Also, it is assumed
  that following very rapid pressure falls there is a time lag before the
  peak winds "catch up" with the drop in pressure.

     Wilma slowly weakened as it moved northwestward toward the north-
  eastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula.  The tiny, 2-nm diameter eye
  was replaced with one ranging from 40 to 60 nm in diameter which was
  maintained for most of Wilma's remaining lifetime.  Winds were estimated
  at 130 kts when the center made landfall on Cozumel Island around 2145
  UTC on 21 October and were only slightly weaker when it crossed the coast
  of the Yucatan Peninsula a few hours later.  Wilma moved very slowly
  northward, battering the northeastern Yucatan region, finally emerging
  into the southern Gulf of Mexico around 23/0000 UTC as a Category 2
  hurricane.  A strong mid-tropospheric trough moving eastward from the
  central U. S. provided an increasingly strong southwesterly steering
  current that accelerated Wilma northeastward toward southern Florida.
  The hurricane began to strengthen again and reached a secondary peak
  of 110 kts as it neared the southwestern Florida coast.

     Moving northeastward at 20-25 kts, Wilma made landfall near Cape
  Romano around 1030 UTC on 24 October with the MSW estimated at 105 kts.
  Wilma crossed the Florida Peninsula in only 4.5 hours, the center
  emerging into the Atlantic southeast of Jupiter around 1500 UTC.  The
  intensity had decreased to 95 kts while crossing Florida, but the
  hurricane re-intensified one final time late on the 24th with winds
  peaking again near 110 kts around 25/0000 UTC.  Following this, Wilma
  began to enter an unfavorable environment and weakened while racing
  northeastward at 40-50 kts over the western Atlantic.  The former
  Category 5 hurricane became an extratropical cyclone around 26/0000 UTC
  while centered about 200 nm southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was
  absorbed by another extratropical LOW located over eastern Nova Scotia
  24 hours later.

  C. Meteorological Extremes

  (1) Record Low Central Pressure

     The officially accepted minimum CP of 882 mb in Wilma around 0800 UTC on
  19 October beats the old record of 888 mb measured in Hurricane Gilbert,
  also in the Northwest Caribbean, on 13 September 1988.   The actual SLP
  reported by the dropsonde was 884 mb, but the surface wind was 23 kts, so
  it is concluded that the drop was likely not in the center of the eye.
  Using the rule of thumb explained last month in the summary for Hurricane
  Rita, the pressure was decreased by 2 mb in order to arrive at what was
  likely the lowest pressure in Wilma's eye.   Given that the pressure had
  been falling on successive drops early on 19 October, it is possible that
  the CP dropped a little below 882 mb.

  (2) Record Pressure Drop

     The rate at which Hurricane Wilma's CP plummeted was phenomenal.  The
  12-hour drop of 88 mb between 18/2000 UTC and 19/0800 UTC represents a
  new world record for a 12-hour pressure fall, the previous being a drop
  of 75 mb in Super Typhoon Irma in November, 1971.   Wilma's peak 24-hour
  drop of 98 mb sets a new record for the Atlantic, the previous being a
  drop of 72 mb in 24 hours in Hurricane Gilbert.  However, the world's
  24-hour pressure fall record is still 101 mb in Super Typhoon Forrest
  in September, 1983.  The Atlantic basin's previous record 12-hour drop
  in CP was 48 mb in Hurricane Allen in August, 1980.

     Wilma's CP fell an astounding 57 mb in six hours, beating the old
  Atlantic 6-hour pressure drop of 38 mb in Hurricane Beulah in September,
  1967.  Wilma's 6-hour CP drop also established a new world record in
  this category, exceeding a 6-hour drop of 43 mb measured in Typhoon Opal
  in September, 1967.  To round out the pressure drop records, Wilma's CP
  fell 31 mb in three hours, beating the 23-mb drop in three hours observed
  in Super Typhoon June in November, 1975; and finally, at one point the
  pressure in Wilma fell 10 mb in one hour, exceeding a one-hour drop of
  8.5 mb measured in Atlantic Hurricane Opal in October, 1995.

     (A special thanks to Karl Hoarau for sending me a summary of record
  pressure falls observed in tropical cyclones.  Some of the information
  in the above paragraphs was taken from Karl's e-mail; some from the
  official TPC/NHC report.  It should be noted that the pressure drops
  referenced in the official report are based upon CP estimates for
  synoptic hours entered into the Best Track database.  Hence, there are
  some differences of a few millibars between those and Karl's values,
  the latter representing the actual pressure falls for various time

  (3) Record Small Eye Diameter

     Around the time that Wilma's minimum pressure was observed, aerial
  reconnaissance observations indicated that the cyclone's eye had
  contracted to a diameter of 2 nm.  This is the smallest eye ever noted
  in an Atlantic hurricane.

  (4) Record Rainfall

     The Meteorological Service of Mexico reported a 24-hour rainfall total
  of 62.05 inches (1576.1 mm) measured on Isla Mujeres near Cancun.  As far
  as is known to the author, this establishes a new world record for rain-
  fall in a 24-hour period over non-mountainous terrain.  The old record
  was around 42 inches (1067 mm) measured at Alvin, Texas, in association
  with Tropical Storm Claudette in July, 1979.

  (5) Peak Wind Considerations

     As noted above, the maximum 700-mb FLW measured in Wilma was 168 kts,
  which was reduced to 150 kts at the surface, and was the highest MSW
  reported operationally for the hurricane.  I have in my possession an
  from e-mail Mark Lander shedding some light on the problems inherent in
  trying to measure the actual peak winds in very small hurricanes.  Mark's
  comments follow:

     "I have another concern.  Given that the eye of Wilma was only 2 miles
  across and that the hurricane-force winds extended out only 15 miles, is
  it possible that the aircraft (flying at 300 mph, or whatever) registers
  a spatially-averaged wind when flying across a wind max that may only
  be 0.5 miles wide?  Even at 300 mph, the plane will cover a distance of
  5 miles in one minute, and one mile every 12 seconds!  So in 12 seconds,
  the flight-level wind will be the average of 1 mile of air, and in one
  minute, the flight-level wind will be the average of 5 miles of air!
  Quite a long distance given the dimensions of Wilma at peak intensity.

     "To make a long story short, I postulate that the flight-level wind
  is a sort of area average, and in very small hurricanes may underestimate
  the sharp peak by a considerable amount."

  D. Damage and Casualties

     Wilma dealt a major blow to the tourist industry in the northeastern
  Yucatan Peninsula, an area which suffered severely from the prolonged
  exposure to destructive winds, high tides and torrential rainfall due to
  the hurricane's very slow movement in that region.  However, detailed
  figures are not available from Mexico.   In southern Florida damage was
  unusually widespread, including substantial crop losses, many downed
  trees and power line poles, extensive roof damage, and many mobile
  homes destroyed.  Hurricane Wilma caused the largest disruption of
  electrical service ever experienced in Florida with 98% of customers
  in the southern part of the peninsula losing service.  Power outages
  were reported in 42 Florida counties.   Total insured damages have been
  estimated at $6.1 billion by the Property Claims Service.  Doubling this
  amount to obtain the total damage gives an estimate of Wilma's damage
  to the U. S. around $12.2 billion.

     Fatalities attributed to Hurricane Wilma include 12 in Haiti, 1 in
  Jamaica, 4 in Mexico, and 5 in Florida for a total of 22 deaths.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett, based primarily on the official TPC/NHC
  report, and with contributions by Karl Hoarau and Mark Lander)

                          TROPICAL STORM ALPHA
                             22 - 24 October

     As the TPC/NHC official report on Tropical Storm Alpha is already
  available online, this report will be brief.  Alpha was the 22nd named
  tropical cyclone of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, besting the
  previous record of 21 storms set in 1933.   For the first time Greek
  alphabet letter names were used to designate Atlantic tropical storms.
  Through the latter 1950s the annual list of names utilized all 26 letters
  of the English alphabet, but beginning with the 1960 season, when
  rotating sets were introduced, names beginning with the letters Q, U, X,
  Y and Z were omitted, leaving 21 names available for each year's
  cyclones.   I am not exactly sure when the idea of using Greek letter
  names as a backup was conceived.  I first learned that this was the
  backup plan for the Eastern North Pacific basin in 1992 after that
  basin's list of names was exhausted during that very active season.
  (In 1992, no further storms formed following Tropical Storm Zeke in late
  October, so no Greek names were assigned.)  It was around the mid-1990s
  that I became aware that the Atlantic would also "go Greek" if more than
  21 names were required.

     Alpha formed from a tropical wave which reached the Windward Islands
  on 19 October.   Shear was light over the eastern Caribbean Sea and the
  disturbance gradually became organized with the first advisory on
  Tropical Depression 25 being issued at 1500 UTC on 22 October, placing
  the center about 185 nm southeast of Santo Domingo in the Dominican
  Republic.   The depression was christened Tropical Storm Alpha at 2100
  UTC.  Dvorak ratings from all three satellite agencies at 1800 UTC were
  T2.0/2.0, but the cloud pattern had continued to improve since that
  time.  Also, ship C6FN4 had reported 22-kt winds at 1800 UTC about 30 nm
  southeast of the center with a SLP of 1007 mb.   The tropical storm
  continued to intensify and reached its peak intensity of 45 kts with a
  CP of 998 mb around 0600 UTC on 23 October as it was nearing the coast
  of the Dominican Republic.

     Tropical Storm Alpha made landfall near the town of Barahona around
  23/1000 UTC.  A meteorological station in the area reported sustained
  winds of 45 kts as the center of Alpha moved inland.  Following landfall
  the cyclone quickly weakened over the high mountains of Hispaniola, being
  downgraded to a tropical depression at 1500 UTC.   The depression then
  turned toward the north-northwest and then north over the southeastern
  Bahamas, never regaining tropical storm status.  By 0000 UTC on the 25th
  Alpha's circulation had been absorbed into the much larger circulation
  of Hurricane Wilma.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Storm Alpha may be found at
  the following link:>

     Press reports attribute 26 deaths to Tropical Storm Alpha:  seventeen
  in Haiti and nine more in the Dominican Republic, primarily from mud-
  slides caused by the heavy rains.   Also, in Haiti floods and mudslides
  damaged or destroyed at least 400 homes.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett, based on official TPC/NHC storm report
  authored by Lixion Avila)

                              HURRICANE BETA
                              27 - 31 October

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     Hurricane Beta was the 14th hurricane and 7th major hurricane of the 
  remarkable 2005 Atlantic tropical cyclone season.   This is the highest 
  number of Category 3+ hurricanes to form in a single season since 1950, 
  when there were eight.  Operationally, Beta was the 13th hurricane, as 
  this was before Cindy had been officially upgraded to hurricane status 
  during post-analysis.

     Hurricane Beta developed slowly from a large, slow-moving area of 
  disturbed weather deep in the southwestern Caribbean Sea that was first 
  mentioned in NHC's Tropical Weather Outlook at 1130 UTC 25 October.  
  The system gradually became better organized on 26 October while drifting
  slowly northwestwards and was upgraded to Tropical Depression 26 at
  27/0300 UTC while located approximately 150 nm east-southeast of 
  Bluefields, Nicaragua.  Situated in very favourable environmental 
  conditions, it became Tropical Storm Beta at 27/0900 UTC while located 
  about 65 nm south of San Andres Island and around 120 nm east-southeast
  of Bluefields, Nicaragua.  The upgrade was based upon satellite intensity
  estimates of 35 kts, and the discussion noted that the MSW was that low
  due only to Dvorak method restraints.  Thus, Beta became the 23rd
  tropical storm of the record-breaking 2005 season.

  B. Synoptic History

    The northwesterly heading became more northerly as Tropical Storm 
  Beta headed towards a weakness in the subtropical ridge induced by a 
  large deep-layer trough located over the eastern United States.  The 
  cyclone increased its intensity on 27 October, but easterly shear over 
  the system hindered further strengthening on 28 October.  However, Beta 
  remained a strong 55-kt tropical storm while moving progressively 
  closer to the islands of San Andres and Providencia.  The center of 
  Beta moved over or very near the island of Providencia during the 
  evening of 28 October (local time), and sustained winds up to 55 kts 
  were reported.   Convection was increasing again with a vengeance, and 
  it appeared that Beta was on the verge of reaching hurricane intensity.

     Tropical Storm Beta was upgraded to the (at the time) 13th hurricane 
  of the 2005 season in the intermediate advisory issued at 29/0600 UTC.
  The centre was located just northwest of the island of Providencia or 
  approximately 130 nm southeast of Cabo Gracias a Dios on the Nicaragua/
  Honduras border.  A 29/0211 UTC SSM/I overpass, not available for the
  previous advisory, revealed a very small eye within the deepest 
  convection, so it was considered likely that Beta had been a hurricane 
  at 29/0000 UTC.  The environment was highly conducive for further 
  strengthening, and it was just a matter of how strong Beta could become 
  before its predicted landfall in Nicaragua.

    At the time of its upgrade to hurricane status, Beta was moving very 
  slowly northwestwards, and shortly afterward began to slowly turn 
  westwards on 29 October in response to a ridge building to its north. 
  Also, once the easterly shear relaxed, intensification proceeded more 
  rapidly.  Reports from a Hurricane Hunter plane around midday on the 29th
  found 700-mb flight-level winds of 77 kts just north of the centre and 
  the CP extrapolated from the dropsondes was 979 mb.  The very small eye 
  was measured to be 10 nm in diameter.  Beta's intensity had reached
  80 kts by 1800 UTC but remained plateaued there for about 12 hours.
  Satellite imagery early on 30 October revealed that the eye was
  surrounded by a solid ring of deep convection with cloud tops as low
  as -80 Deg C.

     Turning to the southwest, Hurricane Beta continued to strengthen and
  was upgraded to a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir/Simpson scale with
  90-kt winds at 30/0300 UTC.  The hurricane reached its peak intensity of
  100 kts, or Category 3 on the Saffir/Simpson scale, around 0600 UTC 
  while located about 45 nm south-southeast of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua.
  The MSW was not upped to 100 kts until the 0900 UTC advisory, but the 
  discussion bulletin at that hour makes it clear that Beta's intensity 
  was likely 100 kts three hours earlier.  All the satellite agencies 
  were reporting T5.5/102 kts at that hour.  At its peak, Hurricane Beta 
  was a small hurricane with hurricane-force winds extending outward from 
  the center only 15 nm, while the diameter of the zone experiencing 
  gales was only about 100 nm.

     By 30/0900 UTC the satellite signature was beginning to deteriorate 
  some, and Beta's MSW had weakened to 90 kts by the time the center made 
  landfall near La Barra, Nicaragua, around 1200 UTC.  Beta rapidly 
  weakened as it moved further into Nicaragua and was downgraded to a
  55-kt tropical storm at 30/2100 UTC, and to a tropical depression by the
  time the final NHC advisory was issued at 31/0300 UTC.    The weakening
  25-kt depression was then located about 115 km east-northeast of Managua,
  Nicaragua.   The remnants of Beta continued to be monitored as they 
  made their journey westwards across Central America, but dissipated 
  over the mountainous terrain before reaching the Eastern North Pacific.

     A graphic displaying the track of Hurricane Beta may be found at the
  following link:>

  C. Damage and Casualties

     Hurricane Beta caused widespread damage on Providencia Island, and 
  extensive damage to structures was reported along the central 
  Nicaraguan coast.  Also, significant flooding was reported in Honduras
  with some areas receiving more than 400 mm of rain.    Dozens of
  communities were flooded, hundreds of buildings damaged, and crops
  destroyed throughout the region.   In Nicaragua more than 7000 persons
  were affected by Beta with many of them left homeless.  Very fortunately,
  no fatalities were reported due to Hurricane Beta. 

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle and Gary Padgett)


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for October:  1 tropical depression
                         1 hurricane **

  ** - storm formed in September and was covered in the September summary

                        Sources of Information

     Most of the information presented below was obtained from the
  various tropical cyclone products issued by the Tropical Prediction
  Center/National Hurricane Center (TPC/NHC) in Miami, Florida (or the
  Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) in Honolulu, Hawaii, for
  locations west of longitude 140W):  discussions, public advisories,
  forecast/advisories, tropical weather outlooks, special tropical
  disturbance statements, etc.  Some additional information may have
  been gleaned from the monthly summaries prepared by the hurricane
  specialists and available on TPC/NHC's website.  All references to
  sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period unless otherwise

  SPECIAL NOTE!!!  Many of the official TPC/NHC tropical cyclone reports
                   are now available online at the following link:


               Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for October

     As the month of October opened, Hurricane Otis was reaching its peak
  intensity of 90 kts about 125 nm west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas on the
  southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula.  Otis soon began to weaken
  rapidly and had dissipated by the afternoon of 3 October.  While the
  month of September had seen a rather impressive outbreak of tropical
  cyclone activity in the Northeast Pacific basin, Otis proved to be the
  final named cyclone of the 2005 season.  Advisories were issued on one
  additional tropical system during October.  Tropical Depression 16E
  formed on 15 October a few hundred miles to the south of Acapulco and
  pursued a fairly straight westerly track at low latitudes for several
  days.   Advisories were discontinued at 0300 UTC on 18 October when the
  system appeared to be dissipating, but were re-initiated 36 hours later
  when the depression seemed to take on new life.  Following this brief
  re-flowering on the 19th, the TD-16E began to slowly weaken once more
  and had dissipated by 1800 UTC on 20 October while located several
  hundred miles to the southwest of Cabo San Lucas.

     The most interesting episode in the life of TD-16E occurred very early
  on 17 October (UTC).  At 17/0000 UTC, TAFB, SAB and AFWA all classified
  the system at T2.5 (35 kts), based on improved banding features and cloud
  tops colder than -70 C over the western half of the circulation.  The
  decision was made to upgrade the depression to Tropical Storm Pilar, but
  shortly before advisory release time at 0300 UTC, shortwave infrared
  imagery revealed that the center had become sheared farther to the
  southeast of the banding feature and that convective cloud tops had
  warmed considerably.  Therefore, the responsible forecaster decided to
  keep the cyclone at depression status for the time being, but the
  weakening trend continued and TD-16E was never officially upgraded to
  a tropical storm.   There was a chance that it might be upgraded to a
  tropical storm in post-storm analysis, but the official TPC/NHC report
  on Tropical Depression 16E is now available online and that action was
  not taken.   A graphic depicting the track of this tropical depression
  may be accessed at the following link:>


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for October:  3 tropical depressions **
                         3 typhoons ++

  ** - only one of these was treated as a tropical depression by JTWC

  ++ - one of these formed in September and was covered in the September

                         Sources of Information

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   In the companion
  tropical cyclone tracks file, I normally annotate track coordinates
  from some of the various Asian warning centers when their center
  positions differ from JTWC's by usually 40-50 nm or more.   All
  references to sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise noted.

     Michael V. Padua of Naga City in the Philippines, owner of the
  Typhoon 2000 website, normally sends me cyclone tracks based upon
  warnings issued by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the
  Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical & Astronomical Services
  Administration (PAGASA).  

     In the title line for each storm I have referenced all the cyclone
  names/numbers I have available:   JTWC's depression number, the 
  JMA-assigned name (if any), JMA's tropical storm numeric designator,
  and PAGASA's name for systems forming in or passing through their
  area of warning responsibility.

              Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for October

     The Northwest Pacific basin was much quieter in October than during
  the preceding two months.  Only two tropical storms were named, compared
  with five in September.  Typhoon Kirogi occupied a considerable chunk
  of October, forming during the second week roughly midway between the
  northernmost Mariana Islands and Okinawa.  Kirogi moved slowly and
  erratically for several days before finally taking off on a persistent
  northeasterly track which carried it into North Pacific waters well
  south of Japan.  The storm was of major intensity, almost becoming
  a super typhoon when it peaked at 125 kts to the east of Okinawa.
  Typhoon Kai-tak traveled far, forming near Yap and eventually moving
  into northern Vietnam.  The system crossed the Philippine Archipelago
  as a fairly weak depression on the 27th before finally getting its act
  together in the central South China Sea.  Kai-tak became a respectable
  90-kt typhoon off the Vietnamese coast before weakening and moving
  northwestward, parallel to the coast.  By the time landfall occurred
  Kai-tak had weakened into a minimal tropical storm.

     Four other systems were tracked during October.  As the month opened,
  intense Typhoon Longwang was about to make a destructive strike on
  Taiwan and the Chinese mainland.   During the first week of the month,
  weak Tropical Depression 20W formed in the northwestern South China Sea
  and moved westward into Vietnam.  Only two warnings were issued for this
  system by JTWC, although it was carried as a depression for a longer
  period by JMA and some of the other warning agencies.  Two other tropical
  depressions were identified by JMA but were not so classified by JTWC.
  One of these was a weak but long-lived system which was first referenced
  in JMA's bulletin on 7 October east of the northern Marianas near 20.0N/
  148.0E.  The depression moved very slowly westward for a few days,
  remaining quasi-stationary at times in the vicinity of the Marianas.  On
  the 12th it began to move northward, becoming slow-moving once more on
  the 14th in the subtropics well to the southeast of Japan.   The system
  turned to the northeast on the 15th and was last mentioned near 35.0N/
  150.0E on the 17th.  This disturbance was included in JTWC's STWOs for
  several days and was given a 'fair' potential for development on the 9th.
  This, however, was downgraded to 'poor' on the 10th. (This system's NRL
  invest number was 93W.)

     Another weak tropical depression was classified by JMA on 10 October
  near 25.0N/152.0E, or several hundred miles east-northeast of the
  Marianas.  This system was tracked generally northward for the next
  couple of days, being finally mentioned near 31.0N/152.0E at 10/1200 UTC.
  This system also was referenced in JTWC's STWOs but was given only a
  'poor' development potential.   No tracks for these weaker depressions
  were included in the accompanying global tropical cyclone tracks file.
  (This second weak depression's NRL invest number was 94W.)

     Reports follow for Typhoons Kirogi and Kai-tak.   The complete report
  on Super Typhoon Longwang may be found in the September summary.  A
  graphic depicting the track of short-lived Tropical Depression 20W may
  be found at the following link:>

                             TYPHOON KIROGI
                       (TC-21W / TY 0520 / NANDO)
                             9 - 20 October

  Kirogi: submitted by North Korea, is the name of a migrating bird,
          the wild goose

  A.  Introduction and Storm Origins

     Typhoon Kirogi was an intense tropical cyclone that spent its entire 
  life over the open waters of the Northwest Pacific.  Wedged into a col 
  region between two HIGHs, slow movement was a feature of this system. 
  Kirogi spent almost a week between the latitudes of 20N and 25N before 
  finally accelerating northeastwards and becoming extratropical 
  southeast of Japan. 

     The disturbance that spawned Kirogi was first mentioned as a 
  persistent area of convection in JTWC's STWO at 1130 UTC 9 October, 
  located approximately 260 nm west-southwest of the Japanese island of 
  Iwo Jima.  Animated satellite imagery indicated cycling convection 
  north of a partially-exposed LLCC.  An upper-level analysis revealed
  low to moderate wind shear, favourable diffluence aloft and increasing
  850-mb vorticity.  A TCFA was issued at 09/2330 UTC based on alignment
  of the deep convection with the LLCC.  The first warning on Tropical 
  Depression 21W was released at 10/0600 UTC, the centre located nearly 
  400 nm southeast of Okinawa, Japan.  At this time, JMA upgraded their 
  MSW estimate to 35 kts and assigned the name Kirogi.  PAGASA had 
  already named the cyclone Nando after it entered their AOR early on
  10 October.  Kirogi rapidly organized and became a 35-kt tropical storm
  (per JTWC) at 10/1800 UTC.  Movement was slow and towards the south at 
  5 kts. 

  B. Synoptic History

     Kirogi quickly strengthened and became a 75-kt typhoon at 1200 UTC 
  11 October, located approximately 430 nm southeast of Okinawa.  A mid-
  level steering ridge centred over southeastern China continued to 
  impart a southward steering influence through 11 October.  A passing 
  mid-latitude trough to the north and enhanced poleward outflow into a 
  TUTT centred to the east aided further rapid intensification and Kirogi 
  reached its first maximum of 115 kts at 12/0600 UTC while turning onto 
  a very slow northward track.  The tropical cyclone remained on this 
  heading, under the competing steering  influences of two mid-level 
  ridges for the next three days.  A weakening phase began late on
  12 October as a result of increasing shear and entrainment of a drier
  and more stable airmass from eastern Asia.  However, the intensity
  levelled off and Kirogi maintained a MSW of 90-95 kt through
  13-14 October.

     At 0000 UTC 15 October Typhoon Kirogi was located approximately
  260 nm southeast of Okinawa and was crawling north-northeastwards at
  2 kts.  The MSW had been nudged up a little to 100 kts and this
  intensity was maintained on 15 October.  As the mid-level ridge over
  southeast Asia began to weaken in response to an approaching longwave
  trough, Kirogi began to accelerate, first on a east-northeasterly
  heading, then onto a northeastward track early on 16 October.  The storm
  strengthened one last time and reached its overall peak intensity of
  125 kts at 16/0600 UTC while centred approximately 440 nm west of Iwo
  Jima, Japan.  Turning north-northeastward, Typhoon Kirogi began to
  weaken late on 16 October as it became further embedded within the
  steering flow of the longwave trough.  Accelerating further, the system
  turned back onto a northeasterly heading.  After a marked reduction in
  the deep convection and disappearance of the eye, Kirogi was downgraded
  to a 55-kt tropical storm at 18/1800 UTC while passing about 180 nm
  south-southeast of Tokyo.  It was declared extratropical and the final
  JTWC warning issued six hours later.  JMA maintained Kirogi as a
  tropical cyclone until 19/0600 UTC, at which time that agency also
  issued their final warning.  The remnant extratropical gale remained
  quasi-stationary for another day or so east of Honshu while weakening.

     NMCC estimated a peak intensity of 100 kts while JMA classified 
  Kirogi as a Very Severe Typhoon, estimating a maximum intensity of
  90 kts (10-min avg) and a CP of 935 mb.  PAGASA and the CWB of Taiwan
  also estimated peak intensities of 90 kts (10-min avg).

     A graphic depicting the track of Typhoon Kirogi/Nando may be found
  at the following link:>

  C. Damage and Casualties

     There were no reported damage or casualties associated with Typhoon 

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)

                             TYPHOON KAI-TAK
                            (TC-22W / TY 0521)
                         25 October - 2 November

  Kai-tak: contributed by Hong Kong, is the name of an old airport which
           was closed in 1998

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     Typhoon Kai-tak was first noted in JTWC's STWO as a persistent area 
  of convection at 2300 UTC 27 October, located approximately 230 nm 
  west-southwest of Manila, Philippines.  Both animated infrared 
  satellite imagery and a 27/1753 UTC AMSR-E pass depicted improving 
  convection over a possible LLCC.  An upper-level analysis indicated weak 
  wind shear and moderate outflow.  Development continued under the 
  favourable environmental conditions and a TCFA was issued at 28/0930 
  UTC.  The first warning on Tropical Depression 22W was issued at 
  28/1800 UTC, locating the centre approximately 410 nm east-southeast of 
  Hue, Vietnam.  (Editor's Note:  JMA initially upgraded this disturbance
  to a weak tropical depression on 25 October while located near 9.0N/
  138.0E--well east of the southern Philippines.  After 12 hours it was
  downgraded to a low-pressure area and subsequently tracked westward
  across the southern Philippines into the South China Sea, where it was
  resurrected as a tropical depression at 0600 UTC on 28 October.)

  B. Synoptic History

     Moving westward at 8 kts, Tropical Depression 22W was upgraded to a 
  35-kt tropical storm at 0000 UTC 29 October, centred approximately
  400 nm southeast of Hue, Vietnam.  Six hours later, it was named Kai-tak
  when JMA raised their 10-min avg MSW to 35 kts.  The system was heading 
  into a weak steering environment between two ridges and this caused the 
  tropical cyclone to decelerate on 29 October.  Strengthening continued, 
  and Kai-tak was upgraded to a 65-kt typhoon at 0000 UTC 30 October 
  while located approximately 340 nm east-southeast of Hue, Vietnam. 
  After moving erratically northwards on 30 October, Kai-tak turned onto 
  a predominantly northwestward track and reached a peak intensity of
  90 kts at 30/1200 UTC.

     Steering currents strengthened as a mid-level ridge to the northeast 
  intensified, and this synoptic feature was to guide Typhoon Kai-tak on 
  an accelerating northwestward path towards its eventual landfall in 
  Vietnam.  The storm began to weaken on 31 October as it headed 
  northwestward into a less favourable environment.  Kai-tak was 
  downgraded to a 60-kt tropical storm at 1800 UTC 1 November.  The 
  tropical cyclone continued northwestwards, paralleling the Vietnamese 
  coastline and came ashore with a MSW estimated at 45 kts at 02/0600 
  UTC approximately 125 nm south of Hanoi, Vietnam.  Both JTWC and JMA 
  issued their respective final warnings at 02/1200 UTC as the system was 
  dissipating over Vietnam.

     All Asian agencies estimated a peak MSW value of 80-kts (10-min avg)
  and JMA estimated a minimum CP of 950 mb.

    A graphic depicting the track of Typhoon Kai-tak may be found at the
  following link:>

  C. Damage and Casualties

     At least 20 people were known to have died after Tropical Storm
  Kai-tak made landfall in Vietnam.  Heavy rains destroyed thousands of 
  hectares of farmland in 10 provinces and disrupted transportation, 
  submerging a section of the north-south railway.  About 18,000 people 
  were evacuated from their homes.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for October:  2 tropical cyclones **

  ** - both of these were classified as minimal tropical storms by JTWC.
       One was treated as a deep depression by IMD, the other was never
       classified as a depression by that agency.

                         Sources of Information

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   Occasionally some
  information may be gleaned from the daily tropical weather outlooks
  and other bulletins issued by the Indian Meteorological Department
  (IMD), which is the World Meteorological Organization's Regional
  Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for the basin.
     The reported maximum sustained winds (MSW) are based on a 1-minute
  averaging period, which is used by all U. S. civilian and military
  weather services for tropical cyclone warnings.     For synoptic
  observations in the North Indian Ocean region, both 10-minute and
  3-minute average winds are employed, but IMD makes no attempt to
  modify the Dvorak scale for estimating tropical cyclone intensity;
  hence, a 1-minute average MSW is implied.  In the North Indian Ocean
  basin JTWC usually does not initiate warnings until a system has
  become well-organized and likely to attain tropical storm status
  within 48 hours.

              North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for October

     Two tropical cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean during October.
  Both were treated as minimal tropical storms by JTWC, but neither was
  named as a cyclonic storm by IMD.  Tropical Cyclone 03B formed very early
  in the month just off the northeastern Indian coastline and moved north-
  northeastward and inland near Calcutta.  This system was not classified
  as even a depression by IMD.  Tropical Cyclone 04B formed during the
  final week of the month to the northeast of Sri Lanka and moved inland
  in southeast India.  This system was treated as a deep depression by
  RSMC New Delhi.  Short reports follow on both these tropical cyclones.

                           TROPICAL CYCLONE
                             2 - 3 October

     Tropical Cyclone 03B was a short-lived minimal tropical storm which
  formed just off the eastern coast of India a few hundred miles south-
  west of Calcutta.  A STWO issued by JTWC at 0900 UTC on 1 October
  mentioned that an area of convection had persisted about 325 nm south-
  southwest of Calcutta with an associated LLCC.  The disturbance was
  situated under moderate vertical wind shear and favorable equatorward
  divergence.  The potential for development was upgraded to 'fair' at
  01/1900 UTC after animated satellite imagery revealed convection
  beginning to build over the well-defined LLCC.  Surface winds at this
  time were estimated at 20-25 kts, and the first warning on TC-03B was
  issued at 0600 UTC on 2 October, placing the center approximately
  225 nm southwest of Calcutta and moving north-northeastward at 4 kts.
  The initial warning intensity was set at 35 kts, which proved to be
  the peak intensity for this short-lived cyclone.  The intensity was
  also supported by Dvorak ratings of T2.5 from SAB.

     The tropical cyclone continued moving north-northeastward just off
  the eastern coastline of India.  The center of TC-03B moved inland just
  south of Calcutta early on 3 October (UTC) and the final JTWC warning
  was issued at 0600 UTC, placing the center about 20 nm south of Calcutta.
  To the author's knowledge, this system was never classified even as a
  depression by the IMD, just the opposite of Cyclonic Storm Pyarr in
  September which was never classified as a tropical cyclone by JTWC.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Cyclone 03B may be found at
  the following link:>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Cyclone 03B.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

                            TROPICAL CYCLONE
                             26 - 28 October

     Like Tropical Cyclone 03B early in the month, Tropical Cyclone 04B
  was another system treated as a tropical storm by JTWC but not by IMD.
  However, in this case the IMD did classify the system as a deep
  depression, implying winds of 30 kts.  A STWO issued by JTWC at 0700
  UTC on 25 October noted than an area of convection had persisted almost
  400 nm east of Madras, India, and was associated with a well-defined
  LLCC.  The disturbance was located under low to moderate vertical shear
  with a good westerly outflow channel.  Maximum winds at the time were
  estimated at 20-25 kts.  The potential for development was upped to
  'fair' at 1800 UTC on 26 October after a 26/1153 UTC TRMM pass had
  revealed consolidating deep convection over the LLCC.  The system at
  this time was located a little less than 200 nm east-southeast of
  Madras, and IMD had by this time classified the system as a depression.

     The system continued moving westward toward the Indian coast as it
  gradually increased in organization.  IMD upgraded it to deep depression
  status on the 27th, and JTWC issued a TCFA at 27/0100 UTC.  The center
  was then located only about 50 nm southeast of Madras with maximum winds
  estimated in the range of 30 to 35 kts and moving west-northwestward
  at 12 kts.   However, the westerly motion halted and the depression
  turned northward.  The first JTWC warning on Tropical Cyclone 04B was
  issued at 27/1800 UTC and placed the center about 120 nm northeast of
  Madras and tracking northward at 5 kts.  The MSW was estimated at 35 kts
  and a 27/1645 UTC AMSU pass indicated strong convection decoupled to
  the west of the well-organized LLCC.  

     TC-04B turned more to the northwest and later west-northwest on the
  28th of October and made landfall around Ongole, India, around 1200 UTC.
  The peak intensity estimated by JTWC was 35 kts, but Dvorak estimates
  from SAB supported an intensity of 45 kts from around 1500 UTC on the
  27th until landfall.  The IMD continued tracking the remnants of TC-04B
  inland over South Andhra State through 29/1200 UTC.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Cyclone 04B may be found at
  the following link:>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Cyclone 04B.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)


  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for October:  1 tropical depression

                          Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Southwest Indian Ocean tropical cyclones are the warnings issued by
  the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre on La Reunion Island, part of
  Meteo France (MFR), and the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre
  for the basin.    However, tropical cyclones in this region are named 
  by the Sub-regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centres in Mauritius and 
  Madagascar with longitude 55E being the demarcation line between their 
  respective areas of naming responsibility.  The La Reunion centre only 
  advises these agencies regarding the intensity of tropical systems.  
  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period unless
  otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from MFR's coordinates by usually
  40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the source of the
  1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included in the
  tracks file.    Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

            Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for October

     One tropical system was tracked in the Southwest Indian Ocean basin
  during the month of October.  Forming on the 12th very deep in the
  tropics far to the east of Diego Garcia, Tropical Depression 02 (per
  MFR's warnings) moved for a few days on a southwesterly track before
  weakening on the 15th.   The system was treated as a 30-kt tropical
  depression by MFR, but was upgraded to a minimal tropical storm (TC-01S)
  in JTWC's warnings.  A short report on this system follows.

                            TROPICAL DEPRESSION
                             (MFR-02 / TC-01S)
                              12 - 15 October

     The second numbered tropical disturbance (per MFR) of the 2005-2006
  season in the Southwest Indian Ocean had its origins deep in the tropics
  on 12 October about 725 nm northwest of the Cocos Islands and about
  850 nm east of Diego Garcia.  MFR initiated bulletins on Tropical
  Disturbance 02 at 0600 UTC, and later that day JTWC mentioned in a
  STWO that the exposed LLCC was accompanied by cycling convection.  The
  system began to move southwestward, a heading that would continue
  throughout its lifetime.   Peak winds near the center were estimated
  at 25 kts with winds locally reaching 30 kts in the southern semicircle.
  The disturbance changed little in intensity on 13 October, but early on
  the 14th began to show signs of strengthening.  JTWC issued a TCFA at
  14/0130 UTC, upgrading the potential for development to 'good'.  Deep
  convection was persisting near the LLCC and the system had moved under
  a narrow axis of low vertical shear with favorable anticyclonic outflow.
  At 14/0600 UTC MFR upgraded the disturbance to tropical depression
  status with 30-kt winds.  Winds up to and exceeding gale force were
  forecast in isolated spots well south of the center.   JTWC initiated
  warnings on the system as TC-01S at 14/1200 UTC, estimating the 1-min
  avg MSW at 35 kts.

     The tropical depression continued moving southwestward on 15 October
  into an unfavorable environment of cooler SSTs and increasing vertical
  shear.   At 15/1800 UTC MFR lowered the central MSW to 25 kts and issued
  their final warning on the system, placing the center approximately
  575 nm southeast of Diego Garcia.   This was also the time of JTWC's
  final warning on TC-01S.  The peak 1-min avg MSW per JTWC's warnings
  was 35 kts, although satellite intensity estimates from SAB were at
  45 kts on the 14th and early on the 15th.  (NOTE:  MFR restricts the
  term "tropical depression" to systems with a 10-min avg MSW of 30 kts,
  equal to a Dvorak rating of T2.5 and equivalent to IMD's "deep
  depression" classification.)

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Depression 02 (TC-01S) may
  be found at the following link:>

     No damage or casualties resulted from this tropical depression.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



  Activity for October:  No tropical cyclones



  Activity for October:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for October:  No tropical cyclones



     The purpose of this section is to list some websites where many and
  varied types of tropical cyclone information are archived.  Many readers
  will know about these already, but for the benefit of those who don't,
  I wanted to include them. 

  (1) Aircraft Reconnaissance Information

     Various types of messages from reconnaissance aircraft may be
  retrieved from the following FTP site:>

     Information regarding how to interpret the coded reconnaissance
  messages may be found at the following URL:>

  Links are also included to websites with further information about the
  U. S. Air Force 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron and the NOAA Air-
  craft Operations Center.

  (2) Archived Advisories

     All the advisory products (public advisories, forecast/advisories,
  strike probabilities, discussions, various graphics) issued by TPC/NHC
  are archived on TPC's website.  For the current year (using 2004 as an
  example), the archived products can be found at:>

  Links to tropical products archives for earlier years are available at
  the following URL:>

  JTWC warnings for past storms are archived on the NRL Monterry website:>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.

     I am not aware at the moment of any other TCWC which archives all
  its tropical cyclone warning/advisory products for public access, but
  if I learn of any, I will add them to this list.

  (3) Satellite Imagery

     Satellite images of tropical cyclones in various sensor bands are
  available on the NRL Monterrey and University of Wisconsin websites,
  courtesy of Jeff Hawkins and Chris Velden and their associates.  The
  links are:>>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.  For the CIMSS site, a link to data archives is 
  located in the lower left portion of the screen.

     Additional tropical satellite imagery, along with looping ability for
  composite microwave imagery for the Western Hemisphere north of the
  equator, can be found at:

  (1) For the Eastern North Pacific:>

  (2) For the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea:>

     I'm sure there are other sites with available imagery available, and
  as I learn of them, I will add the links to this list.


                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the August, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, Chris
  Landsea, and John Diebolt):>>>>>

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the Annual Tropical Cyclone
  Report (ATCR) for 2004 (2003-2004 season for the Southern Hemisphere).
  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2004 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, storm reports for all the 2004 Atlantic
  and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as well as
  track charts and reports on storms from earlier years. 

     The URL is:>

     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  Kevin Boyle  (Northwest Pacific)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)
  E-mail:  [email protected]


Document: summ0510.htm
Updated: 13th March 2006

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