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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary May 2003
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]

                                 MAY, 2003

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                              MAY HIGHLIGHTS

  --> Damaging cyclone strikes eastern Madagascar
  --> Bay of Bengal cyclone strikes Myanmar
  --> Northwest Pacific active--tropical storm causes fatalities
      in Philippines
  --> First tropical storm of season in Northeast Pacific basin forms


                 ***** Feature of the Month for May *****


     For the past two years I have featured tables of Atlantic and
  Northeastern Pacific monthly net tropical activity (NTC).  For this
  month's feature I have included tables for the Northeast Pacific
  basin--the Atlantic was featured in the March monthly summary.  When
  breaking up a tropical cyclone season temporally (into months), some
  decisions have to be made regarding intermonthly cyclones.  I have
  previously explained in detail my reasoning here, and interested
  persons can find this in the March, 2002, summary, which can be
  obtained from any of the websites listed at the end of this summary.

     Tropical cyclonic activity in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) during
  2002 extended from late May into early November.    The first table
  below lists the monthly statistics for the months May through November,
  inclusive, as well as the seasonal totals.  The statistics cover the
  entire NEP basin from the west coast of Mexico to the International
  Dateline.  The NSD, HD and IHD parameters do not include any days which
  a system may have spent in the Northwest Pacific basin west of 
  longitude 180.  The 2002 season in the NEP basin was about average--the 
  NTC was 97.

  NOTE: The parameters NS, H, IH, NSD, HD, IHD and NTC are those which
  are used by the Colorado State University forecast team headed by
  Dr. Bill Gray.  Documentation for these can found on the CSU website:>

           Northeast Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season of 2002

  Month    NS      H       IH       NSD       HD       IHD      NTC

  MAY       1      1        1       5.50     2.75      0.50    10.09
  JUN       1      0        0       2.00     0.00      0.00     1.47
  JUL       3      2        1      14.75     6.25      2.25    21.09
  AUG       5      3        3      16.00     6.75      2.50    33.29
  SEP       2      0        0      10.75     3.50      2.00    10.02
  OCT       3      2        1      13.25     4.25      1.75    18.78
  NOV       0      0        0       2.50     2.50      0.00     1.86

  TOTAL    15      8        6      64.75    26.00      9.00    96.60

     The next table gives NEP statistics for the period 1971-2002,
  arranged by months.  The year 1971 was chosen as a starting point
  since, even though the Dvorak method of satellite analysis had not
  yet been introduced, there was extensive aerial reconnaissance of
  NEP storms that season and during the following two.  Reconnaissance
  flights into NEP cyclones were curtailed after 1973, but by 1974 the
  initial Dvorak method was being used and tropical cyclone intensities
  in the Best Track file can be considered somewhat reliable.

                Northeast Pacific Basin Monthly NTC Table
                        Based on Period 1971-2002

  Month    NS       H      IH      NSD        HD      IHD      NTC

  JAN       1       1       0      3.25      2.00     0.00     0.14
  FEB       0       0       1      3.00      2.25     0.50     0.20
  MAR       1       0       0      1.00      0.00     0.00     0.04
  APR       0       0       0      0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
  MAY      16       9       2     55.25     16.75     2.75     2.06
  JUN      68      36      14    251.25     93.25    26.00    10.59
  JUL     120      65      36    526.25    234.75    74.25    23.45
  AUG     127      77      37    659.25    265.50    60.50    25.08
  SEP     113      69      35    548.50    263.25    79.00    24.23
  OCT      64      37      20    301.25    137.00    40.75    13.13
  NOV      11       3       0     33.50      8.25     0.00     0.89
  DEC       2       1       0      7.50      1.00     0.00     0.19
  TOTAL   523     298     145   2390.00   1024.00   283.75
  AVG    16.3     9.3     4.5     74.7      32.0      8.9

     The following chart tabulates the same set of NEP statistics but
  arranged by year.  The active period which abruptly began in 1982 and
  continued through 1994, except for a short "coffee break" in the late
  1980s, is most striking.  Prior to 1982, the only really active year
  was 1978, and following 1994, the only year with an above-normal NTC
  was the strong El Nino year of 1997.

                Northeast Pacific Basin Annual NTC Table
                        Based on Period 1971-2002

  Year    NS       H      IH      NSD        HD      IHD      NTC

  1971    18      12       6     84.00     38.50     6.00     112
  1972    14       8       4     83.25     33.75     4.50      88
  1973    12       7       3     62.25     28.50     7.25      78
  1974    18      11       3     63.75     22.25     2.50      79
  1975    17       9       4     71.75     26.75     5.50      88
  1976    15       9       5     66.50     27.25     9.75      97
  1977     8       4       0     20.50      5.25      .00      22
  1978    19      14       7    102.75     51.50    16.00     150
  1979    10       6       4     33.75     13.75     3.25      56
  1980    14       7       3     48.25     22.75     2.75      65
  1981    15       8       1     58.00     18.25     1.00      57
  1982    23      12       5    106.50     39.25     7.50     121
  1983    21      12       8    110.00     47.75    16.25     152
  1984    21      13       7    103.50     46.25    14.75     145
  1985    23      13       8    108.50     49.75     8.50     142
  1986    17       9       3     62.50     28.75     6.75      86
  1987    20      10       4     78.50     29.00     7.75     100
  1988    15       7       3     65.25     29.50     6.50      81
  1989    17       9       4     67.25     27.25     5.75      88
  1990    21      16       6    126.00     58.25    20.25     168
  1991    14      10       5     86.25     44.00    14.00     119
  1992    27      16      10    148.75     65.50    20.75     199
  1993    15      11       9     86.75     50.75    16.75     145
  1994    20      10       5     85.50     33.00    17.00     125
  1995    10       7       3     51.75     22.25     9.00      73
  1996     9       5       2     32.00     13.00     3.25      45
  1997    19       9       7     78.50     33.50    15.00     124
  1998    13       9       6     62.75     33.00    10.75     102
  1999     9       6       2     44.50     23.50     6.00      60
  2000    19       6       2     67.50     16.75     4.75      70
  2001    15       8       2     58.25     18.50     5.00      69
  2002    15       8       6     64.75     26.00     9.00      97

  AVG    16.3     9.3     4.5    74.7      32.0      8.9

     The final table is identical to the preceding one except that it
  covers the Eastern North Pacific proper only--from longitude 140W
  eastward to the Mexican and Central American coasts.  The "days"
  parameters--NSD, HD and IHD--do not include portions of cyclones spent
  west of 140W.   (Note:  A similar set of statistics appeared as the
  monthly feature in the July, 2000, summary.  Those had been calculated
  by John Wallace and covered the period 1971-1999.  John had calculated
  them by hand from the Best Track file, and his methodology was to
  include only the storms originating east of 140W, but to include in
  the "days" parameters the entire life cycles of the cyclones.  An NTC
  calculated thusly is also useful in that it reflects the level of
  activity generated by the Eastern North Pacific systems.  However,
  my rather simple software which reads through the NEP Best Track file
  isn't set up to do that, and the re-programming necessary to emulate
  John's procedure would be too time-consuming at the present moment.)

                  Eastern North Pacific (East of 140W)
                           Annual NTC Table              
                       Based on Period 1971-2002

  Month    NS       H      IH      NSD        HD      IHD      NTC

  1971     18      12       6     80.75     36.75     6.00     122
  1972     12       8       3     62.50     24.75     2.75      77
  1973     12       7       3     51.75     24.00     7.00      81
  1974     17      11       2     59.25     18.75     2.25      78
  1975     16       8       4     68.75     26.00     5.50      94
  1976     14       8       5     57.75     22.50     9.75      99
  1977      8       4       0     20.50      5.25      .00      24
  1978     18      12       6     73.00     35.25    13.25     134
  1979     10       6       4     33.75     13.75     3.25      62
  1980     14       7       3     43.75     20.00     2.75      69
  1981     15       8       1     55.25     18.25     1.00      62
  1982     19      11       4     76.75     33.00     6.00     108
  1983     21      12       8     98.00     46.25    15.00     162
  1984     18      12       6     93.25     43.50    14.50     147
  1985     22      11       7     90.25     37.00     5.75     130
  1986     17       9       3     56.25     24.75     5.25      88
  1987     18       9       4     66.00     24.75     7.75     101
  1988     13       6       1     51.25     18.75     2.25      58
  1989     17       9       4     62.75     24.75     5.75      94
  1990     20      16       6    115.25     55.50    18.00     177
  1991     14      10       5     82.00     42.75    14.00     131
  1992     24      14       8    132.75     57.00    18.25     192
  1993     14      10       8     73.50     42.25    15.25     143
  1994     17       8       4     51.50     14.50     4.25      80
  1995     10       7       3     51.75     22.25     9.00      82
  1996      9       5       2     32.00     13.00     3.25      50
  1997     17       9       7     67.25     33.50    15.00     133
  1998     13       9       6     60.75     32.75    10.75     113
  1999      9       6       2     35.50     16.25     5.75      60
  2000     17       6       2     56.50     15.75     4.75      72
  2001     15       8       2     58.25     18.50     5.00      76
  2002     12       6       5     48.00     19.25     8.50      86
  AVG     15.3     8.9     4.2    64.6      27.5      7.7

     A couple of adjustments have been made from the original NS values
  obtained from the Best Track file.   In 1975 sixteen tropical storms
  were named by the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center in San Francisco--
  the agency responsible for issuing warnings in that basin prior to
  1988.  However, the program reported 17 tropical storms.  A hurricane
  formed in subtropical latitudes in the Central North Pacific in late
  August.  The cyclone remained unnamed at the time, but was later added
  to the Best Tracks file.   The final position in the storm's track,
  stilled flagged as tropical, was 138W.  However, the latitude was 54N!
  It seems highly unlikely that the system was still exhibiting tropical 
  storm characteristics at latitude 54N in the Eastern Pacific, so I did 
  not include that storm.

     The other adjustment was made for 1982.  The San Francisco center
  named 19 storms, Aletta through Tara.  However, the program reported
  only eighteen.  The first data point for Tropical Storm Emilia, at
  0600 UTC on 13 July, was 10.5N, 140.5E, with 35-kt winds.  It seems
  likely that a tropical disturbance suddenly intensified and that the
  Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center assigned the name Emilia just as it
  was crossing 140W.  There is also the possibility that the center
  position was readjusted westward during post-storm analysis.  So I
  did count Tropical Storm Emilia as an Eastern North Pacific cyclone,
  but all its "days" parameters occurred west of 140W.

                             ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for May:  No tropical cyclones

                     Atlantic Tropical Activity for May

     A quiet month of May followed the first April Atlantic tropical
  cyclone on record.    Since 1886 twelve tropical storms have formed
  during May, with additional tropical depressions and subtropical storms
  tracked.    The last tropical storm to form in May was Tropical Storm
  Arlene in 1981, which formed in the western Caribbean during the first
  week of May.  Following a May tropical storm in 1887 and a hurricane in
  1889, no more May storms were detected until 1932.  However, since 1932
  the longest gap between May tropical storms has been eleven years (1959
  to 1970 and 1970 to 1981).  So the Atlantic basin is overdue for a May
  tropical storm.

     There was an interesting system off the southeast U. S. coast during
  the first week of the month which initially seemed to have delusions of
  developing into a subtropical storm.   A meso-scale convective system
  from the Gulf of Mexico had moved to a position off the North Carolina
  coast by 2 May where it exhibited some rotation and had generated some
  convection near the center.  (This information from David Roth.)
  According to Bob Hart, the Cyclone Phase Space had initially indicated
  possible hybrid or even weak warm-core development, but later runs of
  the program had backed off a bit and trended toward neutral or cold-
  core evolution.  And Chris Fogarty pointed out that with the upper-level
  trough open to the northwest of the LOW, it would have been very 
  difficult for a warm-core cyclone to form.   


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for May:  1 tropical storm

                 Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for May

     For the fourth consecutive year, the Northeast Pacific basin produced
  a named tropical cyclone.   The only other occasion since 1971 when four
  consecutive Mays produced a named storm was 1981-1984.   In contrast,
  however, to the rather intense Hurricanes Aletta, Adolph and Alma of the
  previous three seasons, Tropical Storm Andres of 2003 remained a fairly
  weak tropical storm.    It did have a rather long life span for a weak
  system, tracking almost to the boundary with the Central North Pacific.

     The following report on Andres was written by John Wallace of San
  Antonio, Texas.  A special thanks to John for his assistance.

                        TROPICAL STORM ANDRES
                             20 - 26 May

  A. Storm Origins

     The disturbance that became Tropical Storm Andres may have been
  noted in the ITCZ south of the Bay of Tehuantepec as early as 16 May.
  However, it is more likely that the system's precursor can be traced to
  a disturbance that tracked westward from Central America around the
  18th.  A LOW was definite in satellite imagery later that day, and the 
  LOW slowly strengthened over the next 24 hours until it became organized 
  sufficiently to warrant its upgrade to Tropical Depression One-E at 
  0300 UTC on 20 May when it was located roughly 475 nm south-southwest of
  Acapulco, Mexico.  The depression tracked westward under the influence
  of a well-defined subtropical ridge to its north.  Conditions remained
  favorable on the whole for intensification, and the cyclone duly
  strengthened to Tropical Storm Andres at 1500 UTC on the 20th while
  positioned roughly 550 nm southwest of Acapulco (this was just 12 hours
  after the first warning).

  B. Storm History

     Andres' quick christening was not the shape of things to come.  Even
  at its upgrade its center was difficult to locate, and was later found
  to be displaced west of the central convection due to westerly shear.
  The shear was persistent, and Andres failed to thrive in spite of
  optimistic official forecasts.
     On the 21st, Andres' unusually swift westward track bent to the west-
  northwest as the subtropical ridge weakened and moved east.   The
  synoptic environment became slightly more favorable, and Andres reached
  its peak estimated MSW of 40 kts, with a CP of 1002 mb, at 0900 UTC on
  22 May when located some 1025 nm west-southwest of Acapulco.  At the time
  this intensity estimate was considered conservative.  Shear prevented the
  storm from strengthening further, however, and Andres fluctuated around
  minimal tropical storm strength for the next two days as it raced west-
  northwest--indeed, its rapid motion was probably the cause of much of
  the net westerly shear.  Though it weakened after its peak, the MSW
  reached 40 kts twice more, at 0900 UTC on the 23rd and at 2100 UTC on
  the 24th, as its convection waxed and waned with the vagaries of its

     Andres' last peak coincided with its crossing of the 26 C isotherm 
  and entry into a more hostile upper-level environment due to a strong
  trough east of the Hawaiian islands.   It quickly weakened to a 
  depression on the 25th as its convection collapsed, while its former
  arrow-straight, west-northwesterly track bent back to the west with the
  low-level trade winds.  The final advisory on Tropical Depression Andres
  was issued at 0300 UTC on 26 May with the weakening center located
  roughly 925 nm east of Hilo, Hawaii, just shy of the CPHC's AOR.  The
  cyclone's remnants dissolved rapidly; there was no significant trace of
  cyclonic organization by late that day, though its amorphous cloud mass
  remnant lingered for a few days thereafter.

  C. Damage and Casualties
     There are no known casualties or damages associated with Tropical
  Storm Andres.

  (Report written by John Wallace)


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for May:  3 tropical storms **
                     1 typhoon

  ** - one of these considered a tropical storm by JTWC only

                 Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for May

     The Northwest Pacific basin experienced a rather active month of May.
  Three tropical storms were named by JMA, and an additional system was
  briefly upgraded to tropical storm status by JTWC (and was assigned a
  name by PAGASA).  The only typhoon of the month was Chan-hom, which
  formed deep in the tropics in the Chuuk area and moved northward out of
  the tropics, passing well to the east of Guam and the Marianas.  Chan-hom
  became a rather intense storm with the peak MSW reaching 115 kts (per
  JTWC's analysis).  Tropical Storms Linfa and Nangka were rather similar.
  Each formed in the northeastern South China Sea and followed generally
  northeasterly tracks.   Linfa/Chedeng moved eastward across northern
  Luzon, where its rains were responsible for significant flooding and loss
  of life, whereas Nangka/Dodong tracked northeastward, passing between
  Luzon and Taiwan.   The other system, Tropical Storm 03W (named Batibot
  by PAGASA) followed an erratic course northward off to the east of the
  southern Philippines.

     The summaries on Tropical Storms 03W, Linfa, and Nangka were written
  by Kevin Boyle of Stoke-on-Trent, UK.   A special thanks to Kevin for
  his assistance.  Also, a big thanks to Huang Chunliang and Karl Hoarau
  for sending along synoptic observations relating to Tropical Storm Linfa.


     Huang Chunliang pointed out a few errors that I had made in reporting
  the observations from Typhoon Kujira:

  (1) The original summary reported that Aburatsu, Miyazaki Prefecture,
      had recored SSW winds of 32 kts at 24/1700 UTC.  The correct time
      should read 25/0700 UTC.

  (2) The station names "Lan Yu" and "Green Island" are better rendered
      as "Lanyu" and "Ludao".

  (3) Regarding a 24-hr rainfall total of 342 mm recorded at Tarama on
      Okinawa on 24 April, I had indicated that I was not sure of the
      applicable time period.  This amount was measured between 0000 and
      2400 local time (UTC + 9 hrs) on 24 April.

     Karl Hoarau pointed out that the pressure readings from Lanyu which
  I had identified as SLP--the minimum being 965 mb--were almost certainly
  unadjusted station pressure readings.  The station is at an altitude of
  325 m, and the center of Kujira passed about 55 nm east of the island
  per both JMA's and JTWC's warnings.    Karl indicated that he had
  rechecked infrared and microwave images of the storm and found that the
  system's appearance in satellite imagery was nowhere near a Dvorak T4.5,
  equivalent to 965 mb.

     Finally, Huang Chunliang sent along some rainfall observations from
  Taiwan which had been unavailable earlier when he'd sent the original
  report.  These are as follows:

  Station                      Storm Total (20/1600 - 23/1800 UTC)

  Shin-liao, Ilan County                  155 mm
  Shuang-Lian Pi, Ilan County             143 mm
  Tai-on, Hualien County                  119 mm
  Ilan                                     90 mm
  Daping, Taipei County                    85 mm
  Lanyu                                    68 mm
  Ludao                                    64 mm
  Keelung                                  58 mm

     A thanks to Chunliang and Karl for sending these corrections and
  addenda.  I will update the April summary and send a corrected version
  to the archive sites.

                            TROPICAL STORM
                          (TC-03W / BATIBOT)
                              17 - 20 May

  Batibot: PAGASA name, is the name of a Filipino children's television
           show similar to Sesame Street

  A. Storm Origins

     The origins of Tropical Storm 03W can be traced back to an area of 
  deep convection, noted in a STWO issued at 1730 UTC, 16 May, located 
  near 5.6N, 132.2E (approximately 180 nm southwest of Palau). Upper-
  level analysis revealed good diffluence aloft and a favourable wind 
  shear environment while animated infrared imagery indicated the
  existence of a possible LLCC.  The development potential was described
  as poor, but was raised to fair at 17/0600 UTC when animated multi-
  spectral satellite imagery revealed cycling but disorganized deep
  convection over possible multiple LLCCs embedded within a surface
  trough.  JMA began issuing warnings at this time, classifying the system
  as a 30-kt (10-min avg) tropical depression near 7.1N, 130.5E.  The first
  JTWC warning at 17/1800 UTC superceded the TCFA issued at 17/1130 UTC.

  B. Storm History

     At the time of the first warning, TD-03W was located approximately 
  80 nm east of Mindanao, Philippines (7.3N, 127.9E.)  Initial movement
  was toward the west at 5 kts with the MSW set at 25 kts.   Animated
  infrared satellite and microwave imagery indicated that the LLCC was 
  continuing to slowly organize with radial deep convection turning 
  toward the centre of the system.   Despite unfavourable wind shear 
  conditions the MSW was raised slightly to 30 kts at 18/0600 UTC.  At
  this time, the broad LLCC was moving slowly northward at 2 kts, and
  based on QuikScat, SSM/I and synoptic data, was relocated to a position 
  approximately 210 nm east of Mindanao, Philippines  (7.7N, 129.9E). 
  (JMA also repositioned the centre to near 8.6N, 130.3E.)  At this point,
  deep convection had been decreasing and TD-03W was suffering from the
  effects of the wind shear as evidenced by the partial exposure of the
  LLCC east of the deep convection.    However, deep convection began to
  pick up again, and at 19/0000 UTC JTWC upgraded the system to a 35-kt
  tropical storm.   The still partially-exposed LLCC was then located
  approximately 270 nm east of Mindanao, (9.1N, 130.8E), moving in a 
  northeastward direction at 7 kts.

     PAGASA initiated warnings at 19/0600 UTC and assigned their internal
  name Batibot.  (Note:  No international name was given to this system
  as JMA did not regard it as a tropical storm.  Neither did any other
  agency, including the CWB of Taiwan who had been monitoring the system
  through their bulletins since 18/1200 UTC but never forecast tropical
  storm intensity.  HKO ranked TS-03W as a tropical depression but did not 
  issue statements.   No warnings were issued by NMCC.)
     A significant decrease in deep convection was noted at 19/1200 UTC. 
  and the LLCC became difficult to locate in infrared satellite images. 
  Subsequently, TS-03W was downgraded to tropical depression status.
  The position was estimated to be approximately 325 nm west of Yap
  (10.3N, 132.7E).  Based on infrared satellite imagery and a 19/1812
  UTC TRMM pass, another relocation was required at 1800 UTC.  (The 
  LLCC's position was relocated further northwest to 10.7N, 131.1E.) 
  Forward motion had become northwestward at 6 kts toward a weakness
  caused by a passing shortwave trough.  The perspective from the multi-
  spectral satellite imagery at 19/2330 UTC was that of a fully-exposed 
  centre with most of the sheared deep convection concentrated east and 
  south of the LLCC.  A little over six hours later, the situation had not 
  improved and JTWC issued the final warning at 20/0600 UTC.  The final 
  fix of the very poorly-defined LLCC was approximately 355 nm east-
  northeast of Tacloban, Philippines (12.8N, 130.8E.)   PAGASA and JMA
  ceased writing bulletins at 20/1200 UTC while CWBT continued to issue
  advisories until 22/0000 UTC.

  C. Damage and Casualties

     No reports of damage or casualties associated with Tropical Storm
  03W/Batibot have been received.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)

                             TYPHOON CHAN-HOM
                            (TC-04W / TY 0303)
                                18 - 28 May

  Chan-hom: contributed by Laos, is a kind of tree

  A. Storm Origins

     JTWC issued a TCFA at 1500 UTC on 18 May for a disturbance located
  approximately 300 nm southwest of Chuuk.  (The disturbance was not
  mentioned in the daily STWO on 15 May, so must have begun to develop
  on either the 16th or 17th--I am missing the STWOs for those dates.)
  Deep convection was cyclic, but organization had improved during the
  previous six hours.  The convection was near the broad LLCC, and a
  200-mb analysis indicated moderate vertical shear and good diffluence
  aloft.  Also, a westerly wind burst was enhancing winds to the south
  of the system.  The first JTWC warning on TD-04W was issued at 19/0000
  UTC and placed the center roughly 470 nm southeast of Guam, moving
  north at 5 kts.  Visible and microwave imagery indicated improving
  organization of the LLCC.  (JMA had classified the system as a tropical
  depression earlier at 1200 UTC on the 18th.)

  B. Storm History

     A U. S. Air Force Reserves' reconnaissance plane investigating the
  depression found a pressure of 1003 mb and maximum FLW of 42 kts in the
  southeast quadrant at 19/0508 UTC, and 50 kts in the southern quadrant
  at 0603 UTC.  JTWC upgraded TD-04W to tropical storm status in the
  second warning, issued around 0900 UTC.  At 0600 UTC the center was
  located approximately 140 nm west-southwest of Chuuk, moving northeast-
  ward at 4 kts.  TS-04W remained at 35 kts for the remainder of the 19th
  as it trekked slowly north and northeastward a little over 100 nm west
  of Chuuk.  A weakness was seen developing in the low to mid-level ridge
  to the north, enhanced by a mid-latitude trough translating eastward
  from the Asian continent.  The tropical cyclone was forecast to continue
  its general northward motion toward this weakness developing in the

     By 1200 UTC on 20 May the tropical storm had reached a position about
  80 nm west-northwest of Chuuk.  Satellite CI estimates ranged from 35 to
  55 kts, and a 20/1118 UTC SSM/I pass indicated that the system had
  become more concentric with good radial outflow and spiral banding
  features while remaining under a very favorable upper-level environment.
  JTWC upped the MSW to 55 kts at 1200 UTC, and JMA upgraded the cyclone
  to tropical storm status, assigning the name Chan-hom.  (NMCC and CWBT
  also upgraded the system to tropical storm status at 20/1200 UTC.)
  A reconnaissance aircraft had made several fixes during the early hours
  of the 20th, finding a maximum FLW of 67 kts in the southern quadrant
  at 20/0326 UTC with a CP of 996 mb.  On the 21st Tropical Storm Chan-hom
  continued to track slowly northward along the western periphery of a
  mid-level ridge situated to the northeast, moving toward the afore-
  mentioned weakness in the subtropical ridge.  The storm slowly gained
  in intensity as the day wore on--by 1800 UTC JTWC and NMCC were reporting
  60 kts (1-min and 10-min averages, respectively) while JMA and CWBT were
  estimating 55 kts (10-min avg).

     At 22/0000 UTC Chan-hom was located about 380 nm east-southeast of
  Guam, trudging northward at 7 kts.  A 21/2204 UTC SSM/I pass indicated
  the development of a banding eye feature, and CI estimates had reached
  55 and 65 kts.  Based on this, JTWC upgraded Chan-hom to a 65-kt typhoon
  at 0000 UTC, but the intensity remained pegged at minimal typhoon
  intensity for another 24 hours.  (NMCC and CWBT upgraded Chan-hom to
  typhoon status at 23/0000 UTC, and JMA did so at 23/0600 UTC.)  U. S.
  Air Force Reserves' reconnaissance flights into Chan-hom during the early
  hours of the 22nd found a peak FLW of 67 kts in the eastern quadrant
  at 22/0330 UTC, and the pressure had dropped to 983 mb by 0538 UTC.

     By 23/0000 UTC the typhoon had reached a position 380 nm north-
  northeast of Guam, and JTWC upped the MSW to 85 kts based on CI estimates
  ranging from 65 to 102 kts.  Chan-hom at this time was sporting a 20-nm
  diameter eye.   The storm increased steadily in intensity and by 1800 UTC
  had reached its peak intensity of 115 kts, based on CI estimates of 115
  and 127 kts.  (The peak 10-min avg MSW values for Chan-hom from JMA,
  NMCC and CWBT were 85, 75 and 85 kts, respectively.)  Gales reached out
  around 100 nm from the 10-nm symmetrical eye, and the radius of 50-kt
  winds was 40 nm.  JMA estimated the minimum CP at 940 mb.    Typhoon
  Chan-hom was located approximately 450 nm east-northeast of Guam at
  this time, and had turned to a north-northeastward heading at 10 kts.

     Chan-hom maintained its peak intensity through 25/0600 UTC (per JTWC's
  warnings) as CI numbers remained at 115 kts.  However, as early as 0000
  UTC on the 24th animated water vapor imagery showed some dry air
  entrainment into the southeastern quadrant, and the eye had become
  irregular and ragged in appearance by 24/1200 UTC.  The storm was then
  located approximately 800 nm west of Wake Island, and satellite imagery
  suggested that the poleward outflow was being temporarily enhanced by
  an approaching deep mid-latitude trough.   Chan-hom's forward motion
  began to accelerate to the northeast as it became increasingly influenced
  by the westerlies.  At 24/1800 UTC it was moving northeastward at 17 kts.

     JTWC reduced the intensity to 90 kts at 25/0600 UTC with Chan-hom
  then located about 660 nm west-northwest of Wake Island.  The dry air
  entrainment had continued, vertical shear was increasing, and the system
  was starting to link up with the mid-latitude trough.   Extratropical
  transition was underway, and at 25/1800 UTC JTWC lowered Chan-hom's
  MSW to minimal typhoon intensity of 65 kts.   By 26/0000 UTC the storm
  had lost much of its convection, and at 0600 UTC all the warning agencies
  downgraded Chan-hom to tropical storm status (except NMCC, which main-
  tained the system as a typhoon for six more hours).  Chan-hom was then
  located over 1100 nm west of Midway Island, scooting northeastward at
  22 kts.

     Even though the system was becoming extratropical, some tropical
  features lingered.  At 1200 UTC the JTWC warning remarked that Chan-hom
  remained vertically stacked with some tropical banding features still
  evident.  By 1800 UTC the storm was located about 950 nm west-northwest
  of Midway Island, and the LLCC had become decoupled from the remaining
  deep convection.   JTWC declared Chan-hom extratropical at 27/0000 UTC
  when located about 850 nm west-northwest of Midway, still moving north-
  eastward at 22 kts, and JMA classified the former typhoon as an extra-
  tropical system six hours later.  The remnants of Chan-hom continued to 
  weaken and move eastward, crossing the International Dateline shortly 
  before 28/1200 UTC.   The final reference to the system in JMA's High 
  Seas Bulletins, at 28/1800 UTC, placed a weak 25-kt LOW several hundred
  miles north of Midway Island.

     Early in its history Chan-hom posed a potential threat to the island
  of Guam.  Fortunately, this failed to materialize, sparing the island
  from what could have been the third typhoon strike in less than a year.
  Chan-hom did, however, have an effect on the island.  After the typhoon
  had passed by Guam well to the east, the resulting wind shift began to
  redirect a plume of ash from the continuing eruption of a volcano on
  Anatahan, an uninhabited island 70 nm north of Saipan, toward Guam.
  Guam's Environmental Protection Agency issued a volcanic haze advisory
  for the island, urging residents, especially those with respiratory
  problems, to take precautions.  In addition to the ash, sulfur dioxide
  and other volcanic gases reacted with oxygen and atmospheric moisture to
  produce volcanic smog, or vog, and acid rain.  The vog can aggravate
  pre-existing respiratory ailments, and the acid rain damages crops.

  C. Damage and Casualties

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Typhoon

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

                         TROPICAL STORM LINFA
                    (TC-05W / STS 0304 / CHEDENG)
                            25 - 31 May

  Linfa: contributed by Macau, is the Macanese name for the lotus,
         an Oriental water lily with pinkish flowers and large leaves

  Chedeng: PAGASA name, is a Filipino nickname for either males or
           females; it is also a term used for the German car Mercedes

  A. Storm Origins

     An area of convection developed and persisted near 14.1N, 114.9E, or 
  approximately 350 nm west of Manila, Philippines.  This was included in 
  JTWC's STWO issued at 1900 UTC on 23 May.  Animated enhanced infrared 
  satellite imagery revealed that the convection was associated with a 
  developing LLCC located in the southeastern quadrant of an anticyclone 
  anchored over the Gulf of Tonkin with divergence aloft, as evidenced 
  by a 200-mb analysis.  Development potential for the next 24 hours was 
  poor.  A day later, at 24/1900 UTC, the potential was upgraded to good 
  and a TCFA issued.  QuikScat data at this time revealed that the LLCC
  had consolidated (with deep cycling convection) and was being fueled by
  a westerly wind burst.   Vertical wind shear in the area was weak, an
  ideal condition necessary for further development. 

     JTWC kicked off Tropical Storm Linfa's career with the first warning, 
  issued at 0000 UTC on 25 May.  JMA started issuing bulletins six hours 
  later.  At the same time PAGASA also began writing warnings on Chedeng, 
  that agency's third named system of the year.  (At 25/0600 UTC PAGASA 
  upgraded Chedeng to a tropical storm.)  The depression was moving very 
  slowly northwestward away from the Philippines at 3 kts at this time, and
  during the 25th Chedeng traced a slow, labourious cyclonic loop.  The 
  expectations were that once TD-05W had intensified beyond its weak, 
  shallow stage, it would move slowly eastward towards Luzon along the 
  northern periphery of the low to mid-level near-equatorial ridge axis 
  located to the south.     The slow erratic motion allowed for some
  strengthening, and JTWC upgraded the depression to a 45-kt tropical storm
  on Warning #4, issued at 25/1800 UTC.   TS-04W was named Linfa six hours
  later when JMA also upgraded the system to tropical storm status.

  B. Storm History

     At 26/0000 UTC Tropical Storm Linfa was still almost stationary near
  16.1N, 118.2E, or approximately 185 nm northwest of Manila.  (Note:  All 
  Asian agencies were warning on Linfa by this time as a tropical storm 
  with the introduction of CWBT and HKO, which had begun issuing advisories
  at 25/0600 UTC and 25/1200 UTC, respectively.    NMCC began releasing
  statements at 26/0300 UTC, classifying Linfa as a 40-kt tropical storm
  (10-min avg) three hours later.)    This very slow motion gave the
  opportunity for the tropical cyclone to slowly develop and intensify a
  little more, and by 26/1800 UTC the MSW was up to 55 kts.  At this time
  Linfa began moving toward the east to begin its attack on the

     At this juncture, Linfa failed to intensify further, and at 0000 UTC,
  27 May, was making landfall on Luzon as a 55-kt tropical storm.  Moving 
  eastward at 7 kts, Tropical Storm Linfa crossed the northern Philippine
  island of Luzon (weakening to 35 kts in the process) and had re-emerged
  back over water by 27/1800 UTC.  At 28/0000 UTC Linfa was downgraded to
  a 25-kt depression.  (JMA had dropped the system to a 35-kt tropical
  storm, but at 28/0000 UTC upped the intensity slightly to 40 kts (10-min
  avg).  The remaining Asian TCWCs also retained tropical storm status.)
  The JTWC warning (#13) issued at this time noted that the main centre
  was weakening and that a new LLCC was developing near 18.6N, 123.6E,
  based upon careful analysis of a 27/2139 UTC QuikScat pass.   This was
  forecast to become the dominant centre within 12 hours.    All the Asian
  TCWCs began following this new LLCC as of 28/0000 UTC while JTWC
  continued to track the old centre through 28/1800 UTC.   This is the
  primary reason for the large deltas in centre position and intensity on
  the 28th and JTWC's downgrade to tropical depression status.  The mid-
  level portion of the original circulation had coupled up with the new
  LLCC by 28/1200 UTC.   HKO issued their final warning on Linfa, still as
  a 35-kt tropical storm, at 28/1500 UTC.   The agency did upgrade the
  system back to severe tropical storm status after it had exited their
  area of warning responsibility.

     After the amalgamation of both LLCCs, JTWC relocated the position of
  the new LLCC at 29/0000 UTC, resulting in a jump to 22.3N, 125.8E, or 
  approximately 250 nm south-southwest of Naha, Okinawa.  Linfa was at
  this time moving on a north-northeasterly heading at 11 kts.  A 28/2331
  UTC SSM/I pass showed that Linfa was becoming more organized with
  distinct banding features and increased convection consolidating around
  the LLCC.  By 29/0600 UTC the MSW had increased to 35 kts and Linfa was
  once again upgraded to a tropical storm.   This was based on banding
  features observed in recent SSM/I and animated multi-spectral imagery.
  However, the system was seen to be asymmetrical, partially-exposed, and
  with almost all the deep convection confined to the eastern semicircle.
  The system then accelerated northeastward at a faster pace of 16 kts
  which took it out of PAGASA's AOR by 29/1800 UTC.  Accordingly, PAGASA
  ceased writing bulletins.  The strengthening Linfa passed 140 nm south-
  east of Naha, Okinawa around this time. 

     Twelve hours later, Linfa reached a secondary peak of 60 kts (based
  on WC-130 reconnaissance data), although recent animated multi-spectral
  satellite imagery indicated that the LLCC remained partially-exposed.
  Turning to a more northerly heading at 23 kts, Linfa began to slowly
  weaken, and by the time JTWC issued their final warning at 30/1200 UTC,
  the MSW had fallen to 50 kts.  At this time animated enhanced infrared
  and water vapor satellite imagery, and a 30/1751 UTC TRMM pass, revealed
  that the system had completed extratropical transition.   The final
  warning placed the centre of Linfa approximately 120 nm south of Iwakuni,
  Japan, or near 32.0N, 132.0E.   NMCC and CWBT both ended their warning
  coverage at 31/0000 UTC while JMA monitored the extratropical system for
  a further 12 hours.

     Continuing northward, the centre of the extratropical Linfa made
  landfall near Uwajima City, Japan, around 0500 local time on May 31.
  The final position of the storm plotted by JMA was near 36.0N, 135.0E,
  with the centre just about to enter the Sea of Japan.

  C. Meteorological Observations

  1. Philippines

     Karl Hoarau passed along the following surface observations in 
  association with Linfa.  (A thanks to Karl for sending the information.)

     The coastal station of Botolan (WMO 98324) recorded 153 mm during
  the 24-hour period from 26/0000 UTC to 27/0000 UTC.  The station also
  reported 68 mm between 0000 and 0600 UTC on the 27th.

     Karl also passed on some more rainfall data listed below:

  Period from 26th 0000 UTC to 28th 0000 UTC

  Location       WMO Code       Rainfall (mm)
  Cabanatuan      98330            225
  Subic Bay       98426            239
  Sangley Point   98428            239
  Iba             98324            289
  Baguio          98328            364
  Dagupan*        98325            723

  *At this station, 378 mm were recorded on the 27th from 0600 to 1200
  UTC, and 251 mm on 27th from 1200 to 1800 UTC.  This means that 629 mm
  were recorded in 12hrs!

     Tropical Storm Linfa passed 50 nm west-northwest of the station
  WMO 47945 (25.8N, 131.2E) around 0100 UTC-0200 UTC on 29 May.  The
  station reported a south wind of 32 kts (10-min avg) and a minimum SLP
  of 991.2 mb at 0300 UTC, 30th May.  From 1200 UTC on the 29th to 0000
  UTC on the 30th 73 mm of rainfall was reported.

     Dagupan (WMO 98325), near the west coast of Luzon, reported a minimum
  SLP of 989.0 mb at 27/0200 UTC, but a wind speed of only 10 kts was 
  recorded.  This station is protected somewhat by the mountains to the 
  east which act as a barrier to winds from the northeast through the

  2. Japan

     Huang Chunliang has sent an extensive amount of information from
  several Japanese stations.  (A thanks to Chunliang for sending along
  the observations.)

  a. Rainfall observations

     JMA station reports exceeding 200 mm were fairly common with one
  report of over 300 mm.  Mie, Osawe (WMO 47663) reported 464.0 mm on the
  31st of May (exact period unknown).   The following tables include only
  24-hour reports exceeding 100 mm.  The recording period is the
  calendar date in local time:  UTC + 9 hours.

  WMO stations in:


     No stations recorded rainfall of >100 mm.


  Prefecture    Station     WMO Code   Rainfall (mm)   Date (May)
  ----------    -------     --------   -------------   ----
  Miyazaki      Nobeoka     47822       199.5          30th
  Miyazaki      Miyazaki    47830       125.0          30th            
  Nagasaki      Izuhara     47800       196.5          30th
  Nagasaki      Fukue       47843       137.5          30th
  Tokushima     Tokushima   47895       147.5          31st          
  Shimane       Saigo       47740       152.0          31st
  Shimane       Hamada      47755       107.5          31st 
  Mie           Owase       47663       464.0          31st
  Aichi         Irako       47653       110.0          31st
  Shizuoka      Hamamatsu   47654       122.5          31st           
  Shizuoka      Omaezaki    47655       216.0          31st
  Shizuoka      Shizuoka    47656       159.5          31st           
  Yamanashi     Kawaguchiko 47640       110.5          31st

  JMA stations (only amounts greater than 200 mm are given):

  Prefecture   Station       JMA code  Rainfall (mm)  Date (May)
  ----------   -------       --------  -------------  ----------
  Miyazaki     Hyuga          87181     208            30th  
  Miyazaki     Mikado         87206     241            30th
  Miyazaki     Mitate         87046     209            30th
  Miyazaki     Kitakata       87136     287            30th 
  Miyazaki     Nakagoya       87126     279            30th
  Miyazaki     Wanitsuka      87436     281            30th
  Miyazaki     Fukase         87461     277            30th
  Kochi        Nakamura       74456     244            30th
  Kochi        Naruyama       74176     212            30th
  Kochi        Sakawa         74166     262            30th
  Kochi        Funato         74237     217            30th

  Kochi        Hongawa        74056     252            31st
  Kochi        Yanase         74151     204            31st
  Tokushima    Kito           71251     224            31st
  Tokushima    Fukuharaasahi  71211     238            31st
  Wakayama     Irokawa        65311     231            31st
  Mie          Kayumi         53231     212            31st
  Mie          Kiinagashima   53326     235            31st
  Mie          Atashika       53401     217            31st
  Mie          Miyagawa       53321     268            31st  
  Mie          Mihama         53416     370            31st
  Shizuoka     Amagi          50427     296            31st

  b. Sustained Wind Measurements

     Station Minamidaitojima on Okinawa (WMO 47945; 25.83N, 131.23E;
  Alt 15 m) recorded a peak MSW of 34 kts from the south-southeast at
  0200 UTC on 30 May with a minimum SLP of 991.2 hPa reported an hour
  later at 0300 UTC. 

     In Japan, Yakushima, Kagoshima (WMO 47836; 30.38N, 130.67E; Alt 36 m)
  reported a maximum MSW of 31 kts and a SLP of 986.5 hPa on 30 May at
  0900 UTC and 1300 UTC, respectively.  Aburatsu, Miyazaki (WMO 47835; 
  31.57N, 131.42E; Alt 3 m) measured a MSW of 37 kts from the northeast at 
  1300 UTC, 30 May.  The station reported a MSLP of 981.5 hPa at 30/1600 
  UTC.  Muruotomisaki, Kochi (WMO 47899; 33.25N, 134.18E; Alt 185 m) 
  recorded a MSW of 61 kts from the east-northeast at 30/1600 UTC.  Later,
  at 31/0600 UTC, a minimum SLP of 990.5 hPa but with winds of only 18 kts 
  was recorded.

     Staying in Japan, WMO 47892 (Uwajima, Ehime; 33.23N, 132.55E; Alt 2 m)
  measured a SLP of 984.6 hPa at 30/1900 UTC and 30/2000 UTC, but the
  sustained wind maximum only reached 27 kts at 0800 UTC, 31 May.  Okayama,
  Okayama (WMO 47768; 34.65N, 133.92E; Alt 3 m) reported a MSW of 30 kts
  from the east at 30/2200 UTC and a minimum SLP of 988.6 hPa nine hours 

     Shionomiski, Wakayama (WMO 47778; 33.45N, 135.77E; Alt 73 m) measured
  a MSW of 26 kts (from the east) at 30/1700 UTC and a SLP of 993.4 hPa at
  31/1000 UTC.  Tsu, Mie (WMO 47651; 34.73N, 136.52E; Alt 3 m) recorded 
  east-southeast winds of 34 kts at 30/1900 UTC and a SLP of 993.8 hPa
  for 2 hours (1200 and 1300 UTC on 31 May).  JMA station 65036 (34.28N,
  135.00E, Alt 43 m) in Tomogasima, Wakayama, reported near-gales of up to
  31 kts for a lengthy period between 0200 UTC to (and including) 0800 UTC,
  31 May.

  c. Peak Gusts

     Several stations recorded peak gusts exceeding gale force with a few 
  exceeding storm force and one of hurricane intensity and another just 
  short of hurricane intensity. Peak gusts exceeding 48 kts (24.6 m/sec) 
  include (dates are local time):

  30th May:

  Prefecture       Station         WMO ID       Alt (m)   Peak Gust (kts)
  Okinawa          Minamidaitojima 47945          28           60 
  Kagishima        Tanegashima     47837          17           48
  Kagoshima        Naze            47909           3           49
  Miyazaki         Aburatsu        47835           3           57
  Kochi            Sukomo          47897           2           50
  Fukui            Tsuruga         47631           2           61

  31st May:

  Prefecture       Station         WMO ID       Alt (m)   Peak Gust (kts)
  Miyazaki          Miyazaki       47830           9           52
  Kumamoto          Asosan         47821        1142           60
  Kochi             Kochi          47893           1           48
  Kochi             Muruotomisaki  47899         185           76
  Kochi             Shimizu        47898          31           64
  Ehime             Uwajima        47892           2           49
  Tokushima         Tokushima      47895           2           56
  Shimane           Saigo          47740          27           51
  Shimane           Matsue         47741          17           55
  Shimane           Hamada         47755          19           51
  Okayama           Okayama        47768           3           51
  Hyogo             Kobe           47770           5           51
  Hyogo             Sumoto         47776         109           54
  Mie               Tsu            47651           3           50
  Niigata           Aikawa         47602           6           52

  d. Observations Highlighted in JMA's Local Warnings

    1. TC Warning #41: Tosashimizu, Kochi, recorded a peak gust of 62 kts 
       at 30/1410 UTC.

    2. TC Warning #51: Mihama, Mie, recorded 93 mm of rain during the
       one-hour period ending at 30/2000 UTC.  Also, Owase, Mie, reported 
       80 mm during the same period.

    3. Torrential Rain Warning #1 (after Linfa was declared XT): Omaezaki, 
       Shizuoka, recorded 51 mm of rain during the one-hour period ending
       at 31/0100 UTC.

  e. Reconnaissance Aircraft Reports

     Reconnaissance aircraft reported a maximum flight-level wind of 34 kts
  in the southern quadrant at 0239 UTC, 30 May.  The lowest CP extrapolated
  from 450 m was 983 mb.

  D. Damage and Casualties

     The death toll reported from the Philippines currently stands at 41 
  dead, 16 injured, and 10 are still reported missing.  Nine of the 41 
  killed (in the Illoilo and Bicol Regions), based on data released by the 
  Philippines' National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), were 
  attributed to the flooding caused by the heavy rains generated by the 
  southwest monsoon, enhanced by Linfa/Chedeng.  

     A total of 20 evacuation centres were set up to cope with 2548
  persons forced to leave their homes.  A total of 2269 houses were
  damaged and 206 destroyed.

  Cost estimates so far include:

     Agriculture/livestock - 66.7 million pesos
     Fisheries - 83.4 million pesos
     Infrastructure - 42.9 million pesos
  NDCC's final report on the effects of Linfa/Chedeng can be found at:>

  Some additional articles on the storm's effects in the Philippines
  can be found at the following URL:>

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang and Karl Hoarau)

                         TROPICAL STORM NANGKA
                      (TC-06W / STS 0305 / DODONG)
                            31 May - 4 June

  Nangka: contributed by Malaysia, is the Malaysian name for the
          jackfruit, an oval-shaped yellow fruit very popular locally

  Dodong: PAGASA name, is a Filipino male nickname

  A. Storm Origins

     Tropical Storm Nangka formed in a similar position to its predecessor,
  Tropical Storm Linfa, near 17.8N, 117.2E, or approximately 185 nm west of
  northern Luzon, Philippines, at 1200 UTC on 31 May (the time of the first
  warnings from both JTWC and JMA).    At this time the system was moving
  slowly northwestward at 4 kts.  PAGASA had been following the fortunes of
  this system through their bulletins since 31/0000 UTC, dubbing the
  cyclone Dodong and setting the MSW at 25 kts (10-min avg).   HKO also
  took an interest six hours later with their first written statement at
  31/0600 UTC.

     Initially, the LLCC of TD-06W was difficult to locate due to the weak,
  shallow nature of the system, but the combination of QuikScat, animated
  enhanced infrared satellite imagery and microwave satellite images
  revealed that the centre was organizing slightly south of the 31/1200 UTC
  position.  Therefore, the coordinates of TD-06W were altered accordingly
  to 17.2N, 116.8E, or 210 nm west of Luzon with the primary rainband now
  located to the south of the LLCC.  The MSW at this time had increased a
  little to 30 kts, but the microwave data and water vapor satellite images
  indicated that dry air was entraining into the system from the north and
  west.   PAGASA temporarily halted tropical cyclone warnings on Tropical
  Depression Dodong at this time.

  B. Storm History

     By 0000 UTC on 1 June Tropical Depression 06W/Dodong's movement had
  become a very sluggish northeast crawl at 1 kt.  The Prognostic Reasoning
  issued at this time (by JTWC) called for an acceleration of the system
  on this northeasterly heading later in the forecast period as TD-06W
  moved into the controlling influence of the mid-latitude westerlies.  The
  system had a day or so left to intensify, and at 01/0600 UTC, JTWC, JMA,
  HKO and CWBT all upgraded Dodong to a 35-kt tropical storm.   PAGASA
  resumed warnings on Dodong as a 35-kt storm and NMCC followed with an
  upgrade to tropical storm status at 01/900 UTC.    NMCC had begun 
  monitoring the system as a tropical depression at 01/0000 UTC, as did
  GRMC (Guangzhou).  (Huang Chunliangs's note:  It should be noted that
  once NMCC upgrades a system to a tropical storm, GRMC will begin to copy
  the bulletins from NMCC.  All the Asian TCWCs implement a 10-min avg for
  the MSW).  Tropical Storm Nangka/Dodong began the expected acceleration
  toward the northeast, and at 01/1800 UTC animated infrared satellite
  imagery revealed an increase in deep convection over the LLCC.

     At 0000 UTC on 2 June Nangka was located near 19.9N, 119.2E, or 150 nm
  southwest of Taiwan, moving northeastward at 10 kts with a MSW of 45 kts
  near the centre.  A peak intensity of 50 kts was reached as it bypassed
  the island of Taiwan about 64 nm to the southeast at 02/1200 UTC.  The 
  forward speed had by then increased to 21 kts.   A 02/1144 UTC SSM/I pass
  revealed an exposed LLCC to the south of the remaining deep convection.
     The warning issued at 1800 UTC on 2 June downgraded Nangka to tropical
  depression intensity, noting that the system was moving east-
  northeastward at 16 kts.  The LLCC was partially-exposed 75 nm southwest
  of the deep convection, and the system was rapidly becoming extra-
  tropical.  The final warning by JTWC was issued at 02/0000 UTC after the
  system was adjudged to have taken on complete extratropical
  characteristics and was starting to acquire a frontal system of its own.
  This final advisory placed the poorly-defined LLCC near 23.0N, 125.2E, or
  225 nm southwest of Naha, Okinawa, and moving east-northeastward at
  20 kts.  JMA's final advisory at 04/0600 UTC placed the LOW near 30N,
  136E.  HKO and NMCC ceased their warning coverage at 03/0000 UTC and
  04/0000 UTC, respectively, while CWBT also stopped writing bulletins at
  04/0000 UTC.  PAGASA issued no more advisories after 03/0600 UTC.

  C. Damage and Casualties

     There are no reports of casualties or damages associated with
  Tropical Storm Nangka/Dodong.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for May:  1 tropical cyclone of hurricane intensity

                North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for May

     The North Indian Ocean experiences two tropical cyclone seasons each
  year, one in the spring and the other in the fall, with very little
  tropical cyclone activity during the months of July-September.  During
  the spring season, May is the month most likely to see tropical activity,
  and May of 2003 was no exception.  The first tropical cyclone of the year
  formed several hundred miles east of Sri Lanka on 10 May and operated
  over Bay of Bengal waters until it finally made landfall in Myanmar on
  the 19th.  The system, designated as Tropical Cyclone 01B by JTWC and
  as BOB0301 by IMD, reached hurricane intensity on the 12th for about
  24 hours.     After weakening and remaining at minimal tropical storm
  intensity for several days, the cyclone was rapidly intensifying once 
  again as it made landfall in Myanmar.

     The report on TC-01B was written by John Wallace--a special thanks to
  John for his assistance.

                           TROPICAL CYCLONE
                             10 - 19 May

  A. Storm Origins

     The disturbance that became Tropical Cyclone 01B may have been
  evident as early as 6 May as an enhanced region of convection in an
  active monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal.    Definite cyclonic
  organization was evident on the 7th, though it waxed and waned over the
  following days as the disturbance remained nearly stationary.   The
  JTWC's Joint Metoc Viewer (JMV) track picks it up as a depression-
  strength LOW on the 8th when it was roughly 850 nm southeast of Madras,
  India.  Around this time the system ended its stationary mode and began
  a persistent and slow north-northeasterly track.  The LOW's organization
  improved on the 10th and JTWC issued their first warning on TC-01B at
  10/1200 UTC with an initial warning intensity of 30 kts.   According to
  the JMV track, TC-01B reached tropical storm strength at 1800 UTC that
  day when located approximately 575 nm south-southeast of Madras.

  B. Storm History

     The second JTWC warning, at 11/0000 UTC, upped the MSW to 50 kts.
  The cyclone was then located about 475 nm east-southeast of Madras, or
  about 375 nm east of Sri Lanka.  Conditions for TC-01B's intensification
  were highly favorable with very warm SSTs and a large, well-defined
  upper-level ridge with excellent divergence aloft.   Things looked as if
  the cyclone was set to become intense and a possible scourge to the
  vulnerable Bengal shores.  The cyclone strengthened steadily--after a
  brief hiatus in the trend, its MSW peaked at 65 kts at 1200 UTC on
  12 May some 400 nm east of Madras as it plodded steadily towards the
  East Indian coast.  (More discussion about the peak intensity follows
  in Section E.)

     The cyclone's star was quick to fall, however.  The strong upper-level
  ridge to its north induced easterly shear across the system on the same
  day it peaked, bringing it below hurricane/typhoon strength by late on
  the 13th.  Steering currents weakened as well, slowing its forward motion
  and turning the cyclone onto an erratic, approximately northward course.
  The synoptic situation did not improve, and by late on the 14th a
  combination of easterly shear and dry air entrainment had almost 
  completely dissipated the cyclone's convection save for a sheared
  convective core over its center.  The system struggled to maintain
  minimal tropical storm status from the 14th into the 16th, even as it
  continued to generate strong convection.  

     This particularly bleak time in TC-01B's life corresponded with a
  collapse of steering currents that began late on the 14th, and which left
  the storm quasi-stationary for the next two days.  On the 16th, however,
  TC-01B was allowed to recover as it broke out of the stall and tracked
  west-southwestward.  The system strengthened slightly on the 16th, but
  faltered again later that day.  The cyclone remained weak as the track
  bent first westward, then northwestward into the 18th, drawing a bead on
  the Myanmar (Burma) coast.   A ridge to its east finally turned TC-01B
  northward, whereupon it began a belated and final intensification trend,
  even after having briefly weakened to depression strength on the 18th.
  The cyclone strengthened quickly once it had the chance; it is perhaps
  just as well that it made landfall when it did, at roughly 1000 UTC on
  19 May, very near Kyaukpyu, Burma, with a MSW of around 50 kts.

     Tropical Cyclone 01B weakened quickly after landfall due to land
  interaction and increased shear, and the JTWC issued its last warning on
  the system at 1800 UTC on 19 May as it broke up over Myanmar roughly
  275 nm north-northeast of Yangon (Rangoon).  There was no trace of
  TC-01B's remnants in satellite imagery by the 21st.

  C. Meteorological Observations

     Huang Chunliang sent a few rainfall and wind observations--a thanks
  to Chunliang for sending the information.  Included were a couple of
  24-hour rainfall accumulations from Tamilnadu State, India.  Pamban
  measured 57 mm on 13 May (local time).  On the 14th (local time), the
  stations of Parangipettai and Adiramapatnam recorded 70 mm and 98 mm,

     A ship with call sign VWTL reported northerly winds of 33 kts at
  13/0000 UTC when located near 13.6N, 83.6E.  Six hours later the same
  ship reported northerly winds of 42 kts while located near 12.6N,
  82.8E.   At 0000 UTC on 16 May ship VWTT, located near 12.5N, 87.2E,
  reported southwesterly winds of 35 kts.  (The averaging period for 
  these winds is unknown.)

  D. Damage and Casualties

     There are no reports of damage or casualties in Myanmar associated
  with the landfall of Tropical Cyclone 01B.  The country of Sri Lanka
  experienced heavy monsoonal rains during early May which led to that
  nation's most disastrous flooding since 1947 with over 200 persons
  perishing in the floods and landslides.   TC-01B was located a few
  hundred miles to the east of northern Sri Lanka during this period, but
  the heavy rains do not appear to be directly associated with the cyclone.
  Many articles about the flooding and relief efforts can be found at the
  following URL:>

  E. Discussion

     Not surprisingly, TC-01B's peak intensity is a matter of some
  conjecture.  According to the final JMV track, the peak intensity was
  65 kts, which translates to an estimated CP of 976 mb using the JTWC's
  MSW-CP relation chart first worked out by Atkinson and Holliday in 1977.
  This estimate agrees well with the minimum CP estimate of the IMD
  (980 mb). The peak MSW at this time, however, is not tabulated, though
  for data points bracketing the minimum CP, the MSW is estimated at
  65 kts.  Of course, one must factor in the averaging time the IMD uses
  for reporting MSW, which is unknown to me.  (Editor's Note:  The IMD
  does not attempt to modify the Dvorak scale intensities; hence, a 1-min
  averaging period is implied.)   On the whole, the IMD and JTWC tracks
  agree well.

     The track from the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) is more
  interesting--it reports the peak MSW of TC-01B as 60 kts from 0300 to
  1500 UTC on the 13th, and is slightly more liberal with the intensity on
  the 14th.  If the TMD uses the same MSW averaging period as the JTWC, the
  agreement is once again very good.    If they use a 10-min averaging 
  scheme, however, then the estimated peak 1-min avg MSW goes up to 70 kts.
  Even so, the overall picture of the estimates from the various agencies
  show very good agreement on what was otherwise a well-behaved system,
  even if perhaps difficult to forecast.

  (Report written by John Wallace with a few additions by Gary Padgett)


  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for May:  1 tropical cyclone

              Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for May

     For the second year in a row, a late-season tropical storm formed
  in the Southwest Indian Ocean and reached tropical cyclone (hurricane)
  intensity.   And for the second consecutive year, Madagascar experienced
  damage from a late-season tropical cyclone.  In May of 2002 Tropical
  Cyclone Kesiny struck the northern tip of the island nation, causing
  more than 30 fatalities.   In May of 2003, a more intense Tropical
  Cyclone Manou struck the eastern coast, leaving more than 70 dead and
  practically destroying the city of Vatomandry.  Manou almost reached the
  intense tropical cyclone level of 90 kts (10-min avg), and was very
  unusual in that it was a fairly intense cyclone south of the 19th
  parallel so late in the season.

                         TROPICAL CYCLONE MANOU
                            (MFR-16 / TC-28S)
                               2 - 10 May

  Manou: contributed by Madagascar

  A. Storm Origins

     An area of convection in the Southwest Indian Ocean began to develop
  around 28 April, and by 1800 UTC on the 29th was located about 400 nm
  southwest of Diego Garcia.  Animated enhanced infrared and multi-
  spectral satellite imagery revealed a LLCC; deep convection was cyclic.
  A 200-mb analysis indicated low to moderate vertical shear and moderate
  diffluence aloft.   Twenty-four hours later the disturbance was in the
  same general area with little change in organization noted.  By 1400 UTC
  on 1 May the system was located approximately 540 nm west-southwest of
  Diego Garcia.  Deep convection continued to organize around the LLCC and
  outflow was favorable.  Strong vertical shear was located to the north
  and south of the system, but it appeared to be tracking westward away
  from the effects of the shear.  The potential for development was
  upgraded to fair.

     At 0800 UTC on 2 May the disturbance was located about 500 nm west-
  southwest of Diego Garcia.  Deep convection was still cyclic, but an
  upper-level analysis indicated that the system was still located under
  a ridge axis with favorable outflow.  A new area of convection had
  formed about 450 nm northeast of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with deep
  convection organizing around a LLCC and with favorable outflow aloft.
  JTWC assessed the development potential for the new disturbance as
  fair also.   At 1200 UTC MFR issued the first bulletin for the eastern-
  most system, numbering it as Tropical Disturbance 16, while at 1400 UTC
  JTWC issued a TCFA for the second, or westernmost disturbance.

     At 0400 UTC on 3 May, JTWC issued a TCFA for the original disturbance
  (MFR-16).  The system was then centered approximately 630 nm northeast of
  Mauritius.  Deep convection had continued to build over the LLCC, and
  recent microwave imagery indicated a significant increase in convective
  organization.   JTWC issued the first warning on TC-28S at 1200 UTC,
  locating the center roughly 530 nm northeast of Mauritius, moving south-
  southwestward at 9 kts.   Animated multi-spectral imagery indicated
  significant convective bands surrounding an improved LLCC.  A low to
  mid-level ridge to the northeast and the second tropical circulation
  approximately 400 nm to the northwest were inducing the poleward motion.
  (A second TCFA was issued for the second disturbance at 1300 UTC.)

     At 04/0000 UTC JTWC upped the MSW (1-min avg) to 50 kts while MFR
  upgraded Tropical Disturbance 16 to depression status (30 kts 10-min
  avg).  The system was then located approximately 360 nm northeast of
  Mauritius and moving southwestward at 15 kts.  The second circulation
  was located about 350 nm to the north-northwest of TC-28S.  The system
  was forecast to gradually assume a westerly track as a mid-level trough
  to the south and a low to mid-level ridge to the southwest translated

  B. Storm History

     Mauritius upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Manou at 04/0600 UTC.
  MFR estimated the MSW (10-min avg) at 35 kts and Manou remained a minimal
  35-kt tropical storm (per MFR's warnings) for a full three days.  JTWC
  reduced the 1-min avg MSW to 45 kts at 1200 UTC and their intensity
  estimates fluctuated between 35 and 45 kts for the next few days.  At
  1200 UTC on 4 May Manou's center was located approximately 300 nm north-
  east of Mauritius.  The vertical shear appeared to have lessened with
  multi-spectral imagery revealing a partially-exposed LLCC to the north-
  east of the deep convection.  The second circulation to the west showed
  signs of weakening as it drew close to Manou, and JTWC cancelled the
  TCFA for that system at 1300 UTC.

     Tropical Storm Manou moved steadily in a general west-southwesterly
  direction during the 5th, influenced by the low to mid-level ridge to
  the southwest.  The system appeared to weaken some as microwave imagery
  around 1200 UTC revealed a fully-exposed LLCC northeast of the deep
  convection.   Manou was located about 190 nm north of Mauritius at
  0000 UTC on 6 May, moving southwestward at 7 kts.  The southwesterly
  motion was attributed to the influence of a passing trough to the south.
  Animated infrared imagery suggested that the LLCC had moved closer to
  the convection.   By 1800 UTC the tropical storm was located northwest
  of Mauritius and had resumed a west-southwesterly track at 9 kts.  A
  synoptic report of 40-kts prompted JTWC to up the intensity to 40 kts
  from 35 kts on the previous warning.  Deep convection had re-organized
  over the center after weakening earlier in the day.

     By 0600 UTC on 7 May Tropical Storm Manou was located about 250 nm
  northwest of Reunion Island, and had continued to strengthen.  MFR raised
  the intensity to 40 kts, and JTWC upped the 1-min avg MSW estimate to
  45 kts.   Manou continued trekking to the west-southwest as it slowly
  intensified.    At 1800 UTC MFR and JTWC increased the MSW to 45 and
  55 kts, respectively.  By 08/0600 UTC visible imagery indicated the
  formation of a small banding eye.   MFR upgraded Manou to tropical
  cyclone (i.e., hurricane) status with the MSW estimated at 70 kts (10-min
  avg).  The cyclone's center at that time was only 40 nm off the east
  coast of Madagascar, moving west-southwestward at 8 kts.

     Tropical Cyclone Manou came to a screeching halt at it neared the
  coast of Madagascar.   By 1200 UTC on 8 May the cyclone had reached its
  peak intensity of 80 kts (10-min avg) with an estimated CP of 952 mb.
  Gales reached out 80-100 nm around the 24-nm diameter eye--the radius
  of 50-kt winds was estimated at 35 nm.  (Interestingly, JTWC's peak 1-min
  avg MSW for Manou was lower than MFR's peak 10-min avg intensity.  The
  peak MSW per JTWC's warnings was 75 kts.  However, the CI estimates
  referenced in the JTWC warnings ranged from 75 to 90 kts.  The JTWC
  forecasters in this case chose to follow the lower Dvorak estimates while
  MFR went with the higher ones.)   The eye of Manou was centered only
  10 nm off the coast of Madagascar at 1800 UTC, practically stationary.
  The storm moved very little for the next 12-18 hours, then gradually
  began to inch southward on the 9th along the western periphery of a
  mid-level ridge to the east.  

     The eye continued to straddle the coast as Manou drifted southward.
  The cyclone began to weaken on the 9th due to land interaction and dry
  air entrainment.  MFR downgraded Manou to a 60-kt tropical storm at
  09/1200 UTC, and JTWC lowered the 1-min avg MSW to 55 kts in their next
  warning at 1800 UTC.  The system continued to move slowly southward just
  off the east coast of Madagascar through the remainder of the 9th and
  on the 10th with MFR downgrading it to tropical depression status at
  0600 UTC.  By 1800 UTC on 10 May Manou had lost almost all of its deep
  convection and the LLCC was difficult to locate.   Both MFR and JTWC
  issued their final warnings on Manou at this time with the dissipating
  center located about 40 nm east of the coast of Madagascar.

  C. Meteorological Observations

     I have a few surface observations sent by Karl Hoarau and Patrick
  Hoareau--a special thanks to these guys for sending along the infor-
  mation.   St. Brandon Island (WMO 61986; 16.5S, 59.6E; 4 m elevation)
  experienced winds gusting above gale force for an extended period as
  Tropical Storm Manou moved slowly by to the north.  Peak gusts reached
  or exceeded 34 kts from 04/0000 UTC through at least 05/1800 UTC (the
  record ends at that time).  The hourly observation with the strongest
  sustained wind and peak gust was at 04/1400 UTC.  The station reported
  a 10-min avg wind of 40 kts with a maximum gust of 59 kts--the SLP at
  that time was 998.3 mb.  Manou was then centered approximately 60 nm
  north-northeast of the island.  The minimum SLP of 995.0 nm was measured
  at 05/0000 UTC when the storm's center was about 50 nm north-northwest
  of St. Brandon.

     Mauritius also experienced some rather strong gusts from Tropical
  Storm Manou.  Following are listed several reporting stations in
  Mauritius with the peak gusts experienced during Manou's approach:

       Le Domaine des Pailles  -  58 kts
       Le Morne                -  55 kts
       Trou aux Cerfs          -  49 kts
       Fort William            -  45 kts  
       Nouvelle-Decouverte     -  43 kts
       Bain-Bouf               -  43 kts
       Queen-Victoria          -  41 kts
       Port-Louis              -  40 kts
       Souillac                -  39 kts

     At Vatomandry, Madagascar, a city which was severely damaged by the
  cyclone, reports indicate that a peak gust of 114 kts was recorded.  The
  same location recorded 227 mm of rain between midnight and 1500 local
  time on 9 May.

     The appearance of Manou in satellite imagery, the magnitude of the
  winds reported in coastal Madagascar, and the level of damage caused
  by the cyclone (see Section D) all suggest that Manou was a strong
  Category 2 or possibly Category 3 cyclone on the Saffir/Simpson Scale
  at the time of its closest approach to Madagascar.

  D. Damage and Casualties

     Tropical Cyclone Manou struck a destructive blow to Madagascar.
  Reports indicate that the city of Vatomandry was almost 90% destroyed.
  Electricity, telecommunications and water networks were badly damaged,
  and roads and bridges were destroyed.  In Vatomandry around 24,500
  homes were destroyed and 47,500 persons left homeless.  In Brickaville
  and Andevoranto, 95% of dwellings were destroyed.  Agricultural losses
  were also high:  80% of the rice crop in the region was destroyed and
  the corn crop was also severely damaged.  The final death toll was
  placed at 70 with 19 still missing a few weeks after the storm.  Also,
  about 85 persons were reported as suffering injuries related to the
  cyclone.  Over 115,000 persons in and around Vatomandry were adversely
  affected by Manou.

     Additional articles concerning the effects of Tropical Cyclone Manou
  can be found at the following website:>

  E. A Little Climatology

     Karl Hoarau looked up some statistics on May tropical cyclones in
  the Southwest Indian Ocean and sent them to me.  A thanks to Karl for
  sharing this information.

     A May tropical cyclone (hurricane) is not a really rare event in the
  Southwest Indian Ocean, but they do not occur all that frequently either.
  Since the beginning of the satellite era, four tropical cyclones of at
  least 75 kts have formed in the basin:

      Kesiny, 75 kts on 9 May 2002 at 0900 UTC - 1200 UTC near 10.5S/50.5E

      Konita, 90 kts on 5 May 1993 at 0000 UTC near 10.5S/68.5E

      Ikonjo, 75 kts on 18 May 1990 at 0600 UTC near 7.5S/53.7E
      Lila, 90 kts on 10 May 1986 at 1200 UTC near 16.7S/89.7E

     Tropical Cyclone Manou is the fifth, and it is the most remarkable
  one because it is the first time that a tropical cyclone has reached a
  significant intensity near 19S-20S in May.   A very strong vertical wind
  shear is a usual climatological feature in May in the Southwest Indian,
  especially near 20S.

     One last bit of information:  only one tropical cyclone is estimated
  to have reached 100 kts in May in the South Indian Ocean.  That one was
  Tropical Cyclone Rhonda on 14 May 1997 from 0000 UTC to 1200 UTC at the
  intensiy of 100 kts near 16S/97E (in the AOR of the Perth TCWC).

  (Report written by Gary Padgett with a contribution by Karl Hoarau)



  Activity for May:  1 tropical LOW

                Northwest Australia/Southeast Indian Ocean
                        Tropical Activity for May

     No tropical cyclones formed in waters between 90E and 135E during
  May.  A weak tropical LOW had formed by 8 May about 375 nm northwest of
  the Cocos Islands.  This system was a Southern Hemisphere twin to the
  more intense Tropical Cyclone 01B in the Bay of Bengal.  The LOW drifted
  east-southeastward, passing just north of the Cocos on the 10th, and was
  last mentioned in Perth's daily Tropical Weather Outlooks on the 11th
  when it was located approximately 150 nm east of the islands.  No gale
  warnings were issued, and the potential for tropical cyclone development
  was rated low each day.  Maximum winds likely did not exceed 20-25 kts.



  Activity for May:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for May:  No tropical cyclones


                               EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the July, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, and
  Chris Landsea):>> OR>>>

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the complete Annual Tropical 
  Cyclone Report (ATCR) for 2001 (2000-2001 season for the Southern 
  Hemisphere).  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.  Recently
  added was the report for the Southern Hemisphere 2001-2002 season.

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2002 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, preliminary storm reports for all the 2002
  Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as
  well as track charts and reports on storms from earlier years.

     The URL is:>

     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  John Wallace  (Eastern North Pacific, North Indian Ocean, Western
                 Gulf of Mexico)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Kevin Boyle  (Eastern Atlantic, Western Northwest Pacific, South
                China Sea)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)
  E-mail:  [email protected]


Document: summ0305.htm
Updated: 27th December 2006

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